Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011


NOTES ON METHODOLOGY


Foreword

The Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 was carried out in the Republic of Croatia from 1 to 28 April 2011 according to the situation as on 31 March 2011 at midnight, which is deemed to be the census moment.

The Census was carried out on the basis of the Act on the Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Croatia in 2011 (Official Gazette, No. 92/10).

In order to achieve the international comparability of data, the methodology used in the 2011 Census is in line with the Conference of European Statisticians Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing as well as with the regulations (EC) Nos 763/2008 and 1201/2009 of the European Parliament and the Council, which regulate censuses of population and housing in the European Union.

Individual data collected in the Census may only be used for statistical purposes and will be expressed strictly in an aggregate form at the levels of the Republic of Croatia, counties, towns/municipalities and settlements.

Constitution of spatial units of the Republic of Croatia

The Census was carried out on the basis of official data from the Register of Spatial Units provided by the State Geodetic Administration.

According to the situation as on 31 March 2011, the Republic of Croatia had 21 counties (including the City of Zagreb), 127 towns, 429 municipalities and 6 756 settlements.

Total population

In the 2011 Census, according to the international statistical standards, the concept of place of usual residence is used in defining of the total population.

According to this concept, the total population of the census settlement, or a country respectively, consists of all persons whose place of usual residence is located in that settlement or country.

The place of usual residence is considered a place where a person spends most of his/her daily time, irrespective of a short-term absence from it (e.g. due to going to vacation, trip, medical treatment, visit etc.).

In line with the definition of the place of usual residence, the total population includes the following persons:

-    Those who have lived in their place of usual residence for a continuous period of at least 12 months before the census moment

-    Those who arrived in their place of usual residence during the 12 months before the census moment with the intention of staying there for at least one year.

Therefore, the period of one year or longer and the intention of staying of at least one year are the basic criteria for the inclusion or exclusion of persons in/from the total population of the country, that is, the census settlements.

According to the international statistical definition of the total population of a country, Article 15 of the Act on the Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Croatia in 2011 defines persons not to be included in the total population of the Republic of Croatia. These are the following persons:

-    Those who are permanently resident in the Republic of Croatia, but who are at the moment of the Census absent for longer than a year or intend to be absent for longer than a year and do not return on a weekly basis to the Republic of Croatia. An exception will be the diplomatic and military personnel of the Republic of Croatia, together with the members of their families, regardless of the duration of their stay abroad.

-    Those who have been resident in the Republic of Croatia for less than a year and do not intend to remain in the Republic of Croatia for longer than a year.

-    Students studying abroad, regardless of the frequency of their return to the Republic of Croatia, with the exception of students who cross the border on a daily basis.

Comparability of census data

2011 Census data are not directly comparable with the 2001 Census data, nor with the earlier censuses' data due to the different statistical definition of the total population used in the 2011 Census.

Data of six population censuses carried out after the Second World War (1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981 and 1991 censuses) concern permanent residents, that is, the persons with the permanent residence in the Republic of Croatia, irrespective of their actual presence/absence at the time of the census and irrespective of the period of absence.

In the 2001 Census, the, concept "place of usual residence" was used for the first time in defining the total population, and the period of one year and more was introduced as a basic criterion in including/excluding a person from the total population.

The 2011 Census also used the concept "place of usual residence", but an intention of staying has been introduced for the first time as an additional criterion in including/excluding a person from the total population.

Although the data of both censuses, in 2001 and 2011, are based on the "place of usual residence" concept, the two cannot be directly compared. Firstly because the intention of staying was not collected in the 2001 Census, and, secondly, due to the fact that the 2001 Census included in the total population persons absent for longer than a year who returned to their residence on a seasonal or monthly basis (these persons are not included in the total population in the 2011 Census).

Explanations of tables

Age of population is expressed by completed years of age.

Data by age are presented by single age as well as by five-year age groups ending with the group "95 and more".

Each age group includes persons who turned the years put as the limits of one interval. For example, the age group 15 – 19 years includes all persons who have reached 15 years and more, but have not yet turned 20.

Average age indicates the mean age of the total population in a certain area (country, town, etc.) and is calculated as an arithmetic mean of the age of the total population.

Ageing index is the percentage of the population aged 60 and over in the population aged 0 –19. The index exceeding 40% indicates that the population of a particular area entered the ageing process.

Age coefficient is the percentage of the population aged 60 and over in the total population. It is the basic indicator in measuring the ageing level. When it exceeds 12%, it means that the population of a particular area entered the ageing process.

Women in reproductive age refer to women aged 15 – 49, which is an approximate age during which, in physiological sense, a women is capable to give birth.

A live-born child is every child who exhibits signs of life at birth, such as breathing, beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movements of voluntary muscles.

Only female persons aged 15 and over were asked about the number of live-born children. Exceptionally, if a girl under 15 years of age had given birth to a live-born child, this information was also noted.

The number of live-born children refers to the total number of live-born children a woman has given birth to, including children no longer living at the time of the Census.

Never married persons are children under the age of 16 and all other persons who never got married in concordance with valid regulations.

Married persons are those who got married before a competent body in concordance with valid regulations.

Widowed persons are persons whose marriage ceased to exist by death of one of spouses or by declaring a missing spouse dead respectfully.

Divorced persons are those whose marriage was terminated by a valid court decision.

Type of union a person lives in represents an actual way of living within the household, regardless of the person’s legal marital status.

Marital union is a union of two persons of opposite sex who are mutually legally married and live together in the same household as a married couple.

Extra-marital union is a union of two persons of opposite sex who are not mutually legally married and live together in the same household as an extra-marital (cohabiting) couple.

Same-sex union is a union of two persons of the same sex who live in the same household as same-sex partners.

A person who is not in marital/extra-marital/same-sex union is the person who does not have his/her marital, extra-marital or same-sex partner in the same household.

Place of birth refers to the place (settlement, foreign country) where a person’s mother resided at the time of the person’s birth.

Migration is considered to be the change of a person’s place of residence (settlement, country). A person is considered to have immigrated to the census settlement if at some point of his/her life he/she had been a resident of some other settlement in the Republic of Croatia or some foreign country where he/she resided for at least one year.

Educational attainment refers to the highest level of completed education. There was no discrimination between the education completed in regular school or a substitute of one (e.g. schools specialising in adult education), providing that the school is acknowledged in the official education system of the Republic of Croatia.

Various courses organised at community colleges, agencies etc. that are not part of the education system of the Republic of Croatia were not taken into consideration, whereas a respondent provided the answer on the previously completed level of education in a school included in the formal education system.

Data in the group “No schooling” refer to persons who never attended any school or to those who did not complete the first grade of the basic education respectively.

The answer “1 – 3 grades of basic education” refers to all persons who completed one of those grades.

The answer “4 – 7 grades of basic education” refers to all persons who completed one of those grades.

The answer “Elementary education” refers to persons who completed the eight-grade elementary school, the former eight-grade or seven-grade school, the former lower grammar school or lower grades of the grammar school respectively, the former civil school and other schools at the level of a “junior-level secondary school certificate”.

The answer “Secondary education” refers to persons who completed one of the following secondary schools: industrial and crafts vocational schools, schools for skilled and highly-skilled workers, technical and related vocational schools and grammar schools.

The answer “Higher education” refers to persons who completed a professional study, university study or defended a doctoral dissertation at any school of higher education in the country or abroad.

The professional study comprises all non-university colleges, 1st (6th) faculty levels and professional studies in accordance with the Bologna Process that can be carried out in polytechnics or schools of higher education.

The university study comprises all faculties, art academies, all university studies in accordance with the Bologna Process as well as master scientific, professional and art degree programmes.

The answer "Doctorate" was given by persons who successfully defended their doctoral dissertation and obtained the academic degree of doctor of science or doctor of arts.

Fields of education (education areas) – each educational programme has been placed in a particular category of education area. Fields of education consist of educational groups and include groups that are similar in content.  

General programmes – include all programmes of general content – basic programmes (basic general preschool, primary, secondary school programmes etc.), literacy and numeracy, personal skills and development programmes.

Education – includes all teachers’ training programmes for all levels of education as well as education science for development of curricula, pedagogical evaluation, research and other topics in the education science area.

Humanities and Arts – include all arts programmes (fine arts, performing, graphic and audio-visual, design and handicrafts) and humanities (theology and religion, foreign languages and cultures, other humanities such as history, archaeology, philosophy, ethics…)   

Social sciences, business and law – include all programmes in the social sciences area (economics, sociology, psychology, geography…), journalism and information, business and administration and law.  

Science – includes all programmes in the area of life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics and statistics, and computing.

Engineering, manufacturing and construction - include all programmes in the area of engineering and engineering crafts, manufacturing and processing, architecture and construction.

 

Agriculture – include all programmes in the area of agriculture, forestry, fishery and veterinary medicine.

Health and welfare – include all programmes in the areas of health (medicine, pharmacy, dental medicine) and social welfare (services and social work).

Services – include all programmes in the areas of personal services, transport services, environmental protection and security services (protection  of property and persons: police work, criminology, fire protection and fire fighting, civil security; military).

Other – includes all programmes that could not be classified into any of the above mentioned categories.

Literate person is any person able to read and write a short, simple essay about their everyday life with comprehension, regardless of the language or script the person is able to read or write in.

Computer literacy refers to a person’s ability to use a computer. In the 2011 Census, persons were asked about their ability to perform the following four activities on the computer: text processing, spreadsheet calculations, using e-mail and internet.

Text processing includes performing basic operations on documents (opening, closing, creating, saving, printing, deleting, renaming, changing views etc.), text design (change and use of font, styles, colours, effects), performing basic operations on text (deleting, changing, copying, transferring, moving), paragraph design (creating paragraphs, alignment, indentation, line spacing etc.) and the like.

Spreadsheet calculations include: performing basic operations with workbooks and worksheets (opening, closing, creating, saving, printing, deleting, renaming, copying, transferring), performing basic cell formatting operations (alignment, merging, basic text formatting operations, colour filing, bordering cells, setting dimensions of rows and columns, copying, transferring), writing and using formulas for standard mathematical operations.

E-mail usage includes: creating messages, sending and receiving messages, printing messages, replying to messages, forwarding messages, attaching and opening attachments, deleting messages, using inbox, outbox and deleted items folders etc.

Internet usage includes knowledge of the following operations: using the navigation button (back, forward), finding web pages via browsers (e.g. Google, Yahoo, Altavista and the like), finding a web page via web address or link, using the Favourites folder (for saving or opening frequently visited pages), setting up and using the homepage, opening pages in new tabs, stopping and refreshing pages etc.

Economic activity is any activity of persons who contribute, or are willing to contribute, to the production of goods or services in a reference period in order to provide means for life. The 2011 Population Census measured economic activity in compliance with the methodological rules and guidelines of the International Labour Organization (ILO) adopted at the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

In the 2011 Census, the economic activity referred to a one-week reference period (the reference week was 25 – 31 March 2011). Therefore, it considered the current activity in the reference week.

Data on the economic activity were collected only for persons aged 15 and over.

Currently active population or the labour force consists of persons whose activity status in the reference week is either employed or unemployed.

Employed persons are those who were engaged in any work for payment in cash or kind during the reference week. They include employees, the self-employed and family members helping in some kind of family business (family enterprise, firm, craft, free-lance, farm) or in some other kind of gainful activity, as well as persons who worked on contract basis, author’s agreement, on the basis of other types of agreement or for direct payment in cash or kind.

Employed persons also include all employees or the self-employed who were temporarily absent from work in the reference week, but who intend to return to work for the same employer or in the same activity after the reasons for the absence discontinued.

Unemployed persons are those who meet the following three criteria:

a) In the reference period did not work for payment in cash or kind;

b) Were actively seeking work during four weeks prior to the Census, and

c) Were currently available for work within the next two weeks.

Those who have found a job to start in the future are also included.

Unemployed persons are divided into those seeking their first employment, that is, who have never worked before and at the time of the Census were seeking their first employment, whether or not they were registered with employment services, and those seeking new employment because they have either left or lost their previous job, whether or not they were registered with employment services.

Inactive population consists of persons under the age of 15 as well as those aged 15 and over who are neither employed nor unemployed.

Inactive persons are grouped into pensioners, homemakers, pupils or students and other inactive persons.

Pensioners are persons who did not work for payment in cash or kind during the Census and who receive their pensions (old-age pension, disability pension or survivor’s pension), that is, persons whose name is stated in the decision on retirement.

Homemakers are persons who did not work for payment in cash or kind during the Census and spent all or most of their time doing housework for their own household such as: cleaning, preparing food, raising children and the like.

Pupils or students are persons aged 15 and over who attend school on a regular or part-time basis (primary, upper secondary or higher education), who did not work for payment in cash or kind during the Census and who are not seeking job.

Other inactive persons are persons who cannot be classified under any of the mentioned categories of inactive persons. An example would be an unemployed person aged 15 or over who neither works, nor seeking employment nor wants to work (that is, economically inactive), who does not receive a pension, nor attends school, nor performs any type of housework.

Data on the main sources of livelihood (income) were collected from all persons.

Persons could provide up to two answers on main types of income earned during the 12 months prior to the Census according to the amount of the income, choosing the two highest ones.

Income from permanent work includes all regular earnings and income from work, that is, by performing an occupation, irrespective of whether they are monetary or non-monetary ones. This includes employees’ income, that is, salary from employment (including other types of income related to employment, such as overtime, tips, bonuses etc.), income from self-employment, net income in cash or in kind generated by employers, self-employed persons, in their companies, workshops, freelance occupations, and income earned by persons working on the basis of working contracts, author’s agreements or direct agreements for direct payment. Permanent work and regularity of earnings and income from work also include temporary, yet brief suspensions or interruptions in payments, most frequently due to business interferences, difficulties in collecting payment for provided goods or services, or lack of funds in procuring production materials etc.

Income from occasional work includes any type of monetary or non-monetary income or earnings from work that has no known or agreed work period or duration, whether such work is performed by persons for whom it is  the only activity and, therefore, their only source of livelihood (e.g. labourer or seasonal worker for whom it is the only activity), or persons with employment and permanent work income, who do additional occasional jobs for extra income (extra earnings), monetary or non-monetary, for their household’s needs.

Income from agriculture includes all types of monetary or non-monetary income or earnings a person makes from working on a family (owned or leased) farm. For instance, this can be income from selling agricultural products and cattle in one's own yard and on the market, from selling fish and other sea and freshwater food, selling wild game or harvesting forest produce, or from selling standing timber and firewood from one's own forest. The value of goods produced on a farm, private plot, garden etc. used for one's household’s needs is also considered income from agriculture.

Old-age pension is an income relating only to the person who the pension decision is made out to, irrespective of whether the person acquired their pension benefits in the country or abroad.

Old-age pension, early or full, is acquired by insured persons who gained that right by performing their work for the required duration and until the required age.

Other pensions (disability, survivor's) are incomes relating only to the person who the pension decision is made out to, providing that the disability pension is acquired by persons who lost their ability to work, and the survivor's pension is acquired by family members after the death of the pension holder. 

Survivor's pension beneficiaries can include children until the completion of regular education and up to the age of 26 in case of parental death.

Property income refers to persons who the property and property rights acquired by previous work, are made out to and include income from renting rooms, apartments, houses, garages, office space, mobile property (car, ship etc.), land, followed by income from stock dividends or distributed profit of a company (persons who invested funds in a company's business activities and who participated only in the distribution of profit shall be considered having earned property income), income from patents, licences, copyrights, income from savings deposit interest, interest from bonds and other securities and the like.

Social welfare payments include monetary payments received by persons on various grounds, such as: unemployment benefits, child's allowance, maternity benefits, benefits for sick leaves longer than 42 days, physical damage and care provided by other persons, social welfare, rehabilitation and employment of disabled persons.

Other incomes include income from the sale of mobile and immobile property, stocks and securities, income from taking out loans or savings, alimony, rewards for success in education, scholarships and lump-sum payments from e.g. insurance companies due to injuries, disability or death, damaged or destroyed property, payments received for nationalised property etc.

Periodical support from others is a voluntary monetary or non-monetary aid a person may receive from other persons, whether they are family members or not, and/or entities like associations, most frequently humanitarian or religious, the Red Cross, Caritas etc.

Persons without income are persons not earning any of the mentioned incomes.

Citizenship is a legal status of a person determined by the affiliation to the country, which means that person has rights and duties foreseen by the state, its constitution or administration for its people (citizens).

The 2011 Census data on citizenship are presented for the Croatian citizens (including data for double citizenship – Croatian and other), foreign citizens, stateless persons and persons of unknown citizenship (answer was not given).

In detailed classification by the country of citizenship, data on the Croatian citizens are presented first, followed by data on the foreign citizens by countries.

Ethnicity is a characteristic denoting a person’s affiliation to a particular ethnic group.

Ethnicity is also interpreted as a sense of belonging to a society (nation), distinguished by ethnic, lingual and cultural affinity of its members as well as awareness of the integrity of their own community and its special qualities in relation to other such communities.

According to Article 7, Paragraph 2, of the Act on the Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Croatia in 2011, persons could freely declare their ethnic affiliation.

If a person declared his/her regional, religious or any other affiliation, the enumerator was obliged to write such answer.

But if a person did not want to declare, enumerator marked the answer "not declared".

The 2011 Census data on ethnicity are presented so that first are listed the data on Croats as the majority people, then those on 22 ethnic minorities in the Republic of Croatia in the alphabetical order, followed by data on other ethnicities, data on persons who declared their regional and religious affiliation, data on those whose answers could not be classified, and at the end data on not declared persons and on those of unknown ethnicity (answer was not given).

Mother tongue means the language a person learned in early childhood, that is, the language they consider to be their mother tongue, if the household was multilingual.

The Census 2011 data on mother tongue are presented so that first are listed data on the Croatian language, then on languages spoken by ethnic minorities in the Republic of Croatia and at the end data on other languages.

Religion is a characteristic denoting a person's affiliation to a particular religious system, irrespective of whether the person is a registered member of a particular church or religious community or not, or whether he/she practises religion or not.

According to Article 7, Paragraph 2, of the Act on the Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Croatia in 2011, persons could freely declare their religious affiliation.

But if a person did not want to declare, the enumerator marked the answer "not declared".

The 2011 Census data on religion are presented by the following groups: Catholics; Orthodox; Protestants; Other Christians; Muslims; Jews; Oriental religions; Other religions, movements and life philosophies; Agnostics and sceptics; Not religious and atheists, Not declared, Unknown.

Difficulties in performing activities of daily living

As opposed to the 2001 Census when a question on any type of disability had been asked, in the 2011 Census a question on difficulties in performing activities of daily living due to a long-term illness, disability or old age was asked. The intention was to obtain the number of persons with difficulties in the functioning in everyday life. The answer to this question was given independently of the certificate issued by competent government institutions confirming the person's difficulties (disability, impairment, handicap).

A positive answer was given by persons who, due to a long-term illness, disability or old age, had difficulties in performing daily activities at home, school, work, etc.

These difficulties may occur, for example, when reading/looking (despite wearing glasses or contact lenses), listening (despite wearing a hearing aid), speaking, moving (walking, climbing up the stairs, going to a store), dressing, performing personal hygiene, difficulties in concentrating, communicating with others, etc.

If persons had temporary medical conditions (lasting no longer than 6 months) that limited them in performing their daily activities, e.g. a broken arm or leg, the flu, pneumonia etc., the answer to the question was "No", so it was considered that they had no difficulties.

Type of difficulty

If persons had multiple difficulties, they could give the maximum of two answers, choosing those that presented the gravest problem in performing their daily activities. Therefore, the table presents all combinations of types of difficulties (one answer or a two-answer combination).

Seeing difficulties refer to persons who have vision problems despite wearing glasses or contact lenses.

Hearing or speaking difficulties refer to persons who have auditory problems despite wearing a hearing aid, or to persons with permanent speech difficulties.

Difficulties in remembering, concentrating or communicating with other people refer to persons who forget what they would normally remember on a daily basis (e.g. performing certain minor tasks, shopping, paying bills, keeping scheduled appointments, remembering the names of family members, the way home and the like).This answer is also to be given by persons having difficulties in concentrating (e.g. while reading, writing, listening to others etc.), as well as those having difficulties in understanding other persons (e.g. persons who, due to an illness, are either completely unable or must make great efforts to communicate with persons around them, or persons with intellectual/mental difficulties).

Mobility difficulties refer to persons who have trouble walking on flat surfaces or climbing up the stairs, that is, persons unable to move without the help of another person or aid inside their house, from room to room, inside rooms, outside their house or from one floor to the next.

Other difficulties refer to all other difficulties and impairments of other organs and systems of organs (respiratory system, circulatory system, endocrine system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, urogenital organs etc.), that is, to long-lasting medical difficulties causing problems in a person's everyday life for 6 months and longer.

Physical mobility of the person refers to the physical mobility, that is, the physical status of a person with difficulties.

Fully mobile persons are persons who are able to move on their own without any aids or without assistance of another person.

Persons are of permanently limited mobility aided by cane, crutches or walking frame if they are of permanently limited mobility, able to move only with the help of the mentioned aids (including prosthetic arm or leg).

Persons are of permanently limited mobility aided by wheelchair if they are of permanently limited mobility, able to move only with the help of a wheelchair.

Permanently immobile persons are persons who are not able to independently move their body or to move even with aids or assistance.

The answer „Other“ is given by persons of  limited mobility or full immobility that cannot be classified as permanent yet (after all, it does not need to be permanent), e.g., after a major cardiac surgery, transplantation, traffic accidents, strokes, severe fractures (hip), malignant diseases with long-lasting treatments and rehabilitation (more than 6 months) with uncertain outcome (full recovery or one of the categories of permanent immobility).

Cause of difficulty

The answer "Since birth" is to be given by persons who have been living with a disability since birth (e.g. blindness, deafness, insufficient mental development, body deformities, injury at birth etc.).

The answer "Homeland War and its after-effects" is to be given by persons with disabilities caused by war wounds/illnesses or by explosive devices remained from the war.

The answer "Occupational impairment (occupational disease/injury at work)" refers to persons who have difficulties in performing their daily activities due to a work injury or occupational disease.

The answer "Illness" is to be given by persons who, due to any kind of illness, have difficulties in performing their daily activities (excluding occupational disease/injury at work).

The answer "Traffic accident" is to be given by persons who, due to a traffic accident, have difficulties in performing their everyday activities.

Traffic accident is every accident in which any transport vehicle intended or used at that time for carrying of persons or goods from one place to the other is involved. Traffic accidents include: injury of pedestrians, injury in a vehicle, in non-motor vehicles, in vessels, in rail or air traffic.

The answer "Other" refers to persons who, due to some other type of accident (e.g. in the house, during a walk, while playing sports), poisoning or old age have difficulties in performing daily activities.

If more than one difficulties are present, the one that causes most trouble for the person in performing daily activities is to be determined.

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES

The 2011 Census distinguishes two types of household: a private and institutional household. The term “household” is usually used for a private household.

Household is every family or other type of community of persons who live together and jointly spend their income for basic existential needs (housing, food, etc.).

Also, a household is considered every person living alone (one-person household).

Every person without a permanent address (e.g., homeless people) who was found in the place of census at the time of census is also considered a household.

Private households are divided in the following way:

a)     Family households – those consisting of at least one family nucleus and could include members who do not belong to any family within the household.

b)    Non-family households – those with no family nuclei. They are divided to one-person households and multi-person households.

Family nucleus is a community within the same household consisting of:

-       Married or extra-marital (cohabiting) couple without children

-       Married or extra-marital (cohabiting) couple with children

-       Lone parent with children.

For example, in accordance with the above-stated definition, a woman who lives with her child in her parents’ household is considered to form a family with her child, while her parents form the second family nucleus in the same household.

The term “child” is not limited by age, so a family nucleus can consist of an 80-year old mother and her 60
-year old daughter.

The terms “lone mother with children” or “lone father with children” do not equal the term “single parent”.

Institutional household comprises persons for whom accommodation and food are provided by a certain institution. These are, as a rule, households established by a legal entity or a natural person for the purpose of the long-term accommodation and care for a specific group of people.

In the 2011 Census, institutional households are broken down to educational institutions, health and care institutions, institutions for retired and elderly people, military institutions, religious institutions, and other institutions.

Average number of household members is a ratio between the number of population and the number of households on a certain territory (town/municipality, county, the Republic of Croatia).

HOUSING UNITS

The 2011 Census comprised the following housing units:

-       dwellings

-       other dwelling units

-       collective living quarters.

Dwelling is every structurally connected unit intended for housing purposes, consisting of one or more rooms, with or without auxiliary rooms (kitchen, pantry, hallway, bathroom, toilet, etc.) and having a separate entrance directly from the hallway, stairway, yard or street.

Other dwelling units are rooms and facilities that are not dwellings in the construction sense, but were used as dwellings at the time of the Census.

These can be rooms in buildings, e.g. an inhabited basement, storage room, garage, occupied business premises (warehouse facilities, offices, hotel or hospital rooms), as well as certain mobile or immobile objects, e.g. a railway car, truck, ship, tent, trailer, hovel etc.

Collective living quarters are a group of rooms used for organised habitation by large groups of people or several households. For instance, these include retirement homes, homes for children and youth, institutions for permanent care and accommodation of the physically and mentally disabled and persons with other illnesses, convents, prisons, military institutions etc.

Objects defined as dwellings were enumerated irrespective of how they were used at the time of the Census, that is, whether they were occupied or not, while other dwelling units and collective living quarters were enumerated only in case they were occupied (by institutional and private households and/or temporarily present persons).

Unlike the dwellings, the data on other dwelling units and collective living quarters were not collected in detail, but only on their characteristics necessary for the evaluation of the housing quality according to international recommendations (toilet, bathroom, water supply and sewage system installations).

As a rule, the Census shall include only completed dwellings. A dwelling is considered completed if all planned construction works are done, thus making the dwelling fit for habitation. An uncompleted dwelling was enumerated only if used for habitation at the time of the Census by a household that had no other dwelling.

According to their usage, the following dwellings were enumerated: dwellings intended for permanent habitation (occupied or unoccupied), temporarily used dwellings (dwellings used for vacation and recreation and dwellings used at the time of seasonal agricultural activities) and dwellings that were used, at the time of the Census, solely for performing a certain activity.

Occupied dwellings are those that were used, at the time of the Census, for permanent habitation or habitation and performing of an activity by one or more persons.

Unoccupied dwellings are those that were not used, at the time of the Census, for permanent habitation. They include temporarily unoccupied dwellings, abandoned dwellings and dwellings in which only temporarily present persons were enumerated.

The following dwellings were also enumerated as unoccupied (empty): new dwellings not yet occupied, dwellings empty due to change of residence, construction work (reconstruction, repair etc), dwellings for rent or sale, dwellings of households residing in another dwelling at the same or other address, in the same or other settlement, which are not being used or rented out.

Abandoned dwellings are dwellings not used for a longer period of time, due to the fact that the owner has moved (or has relocated) and does not use the dwelling either temporarily or for rent, or the owner died and the inheritors do not rent out the dwelling or even use it occasionally (as a holiday house, for instance).

Those dwellings were enumerated if they were functional to a certain extent regarding their construction, or might be made functional after minor repairs. Dwellings were not enumerated if they were located in old dilapidated houses (which started to cave in) or in houses heavily damaged in the war, in houses stricken by land-slides or earthquake that were not renovated as well as in housed planned for demolishing.

Dwellings used during seasonal agricultural activities are premises that fit the definition of a dwelling, but are used only at the time of seasonal agricultural activities (as a farm house, shepherd's or vineyard cottage and the like). 

Dwellings used for vacation and recreation by all standards fit the definition of a dwelling, but are used exclusively for vacation and recreation, whether occasionally or several months a year. They do not include dwellings used exclusively for renting during the tourist season, but only those used for owners’ needs.

Dwelling used for vacation may be located in a separate house, villa, or similar type of building built solely as a weekend (holiday) house, then in an inherited family house or in a building with multiple dwellings, which may contain dwellings used for vacation.

Dwellings in a holiday house are dwellings in buildings constructed or bought solely for vacation and recreation (weekend houses, villas, summer houses, mountain and hunting lodges etc.).

Dwellings in a family house are dwellings formerly used as residences by households, but are now used only temporarily, e.g. for vacation and recreation, due to relocation of owner or inheritor.

Dwellings in other type of building are dwellings used solely for vacation and recreation (condominiums and smaller apartments) in buildings with multiple dwellings, which may contain dwellings occupied by households throughout the year.

Dwellings for business activity only are dwellings that fully fit the definition of a dwelling but were used at the time of the Census solely for performing of certain business activities. In this regard, it is necessary to differentiate between the dwellings for tourist renting and the dwellings for performing other activities.

Dwellings for tourist renting are dwellings (houses or apartments) privately owned by citizens, rented exclusively to tourists.

Dwellings for other activities are dwellings used for performing a certain business activity (e.g. law office, dental practice office, branch office of a company etc.).

By type of ownership, there is private and other ownership.

Private ownership refers to dwellings in private ownership of citizens, while other ownership refers to dwellings owned by legal entities, e.g. the state, town or municipality, religious communities, trading companies, companies and other legal entities.

Basis for dwelling usage means a basis on which a household uses a dwelling where it lives.

By the basis for dwelling usage, we distinguish:

- Private property or co-ownership – if one of the members of the household is the owner or co-owner of the dwelling, regardless of whether the household of another co-owner (or co-owners, if there are more than two) lives in that dwelling or not.

- Tenant with a free-based tenancy – for households who use dwelling based on a written contract or verbal agreement with the owner of the dwelling or the tenant with a contract-based tenancy.

- Kinship with owner or tenant – if the household lives in the dwelling based on kinship with the owner or tenant with a contract-based tenancy, regardless of whether the relative who is the owner or tenant of that dwelling lives in that same dwelling with his household or not.

- Tenant with a contract-based tenancy – if the household uses the dwelling based on the protected tenancy agreement of one of the household members according to which the household pays a protected rent (former tenancy right holder or other tenant with a contract-based tenancy).

- Renting part of the dwelling (sub-tenancy) – if the household uses only a part of the dwelling based on a contract (agreement) with the owner or tenant with a contract- or free-based tenancy.

- Other bases – the answer was entered:

- For all households occupying rooms and structures not complying with the definition of the dwelling

- For one-person and nucleus family households permanently living in buildings for collective dwelling as users of its services (e.g. singles’ hotels)

- For institutional households in collective dwellings (retirement homes, convents etc.)

- For institutional households in ordinary“ dwellings in residential buildings

- A homeless person can be generally defined as the person who, due to the lack of accommodation of his/her own, does not have any other options but to live on the street and without a conventional shelter that complies with the definition of the dwelling, or a person who frequently resides in various types of accommodation such as shelters, institutions for the homeless or similar housing units. Such persons were enumerated in shelters for the homeless or at places where enumerators found them that very moment.  

Surface area of a dwelling is the floor surface measured within the outside walls of the dwelling.

A room is a facility intended for residence, separated from other rooms by permanent walls, with the height of at least 2 m in relation to the majority of the ceiling surface area, has direct source of daylight and the floor surface of at least 4 m2.

Premises that did not fulfil this condition as well as the kitchen and other auxiliary spaces were not included in the number of rooms, but their floor surface was included in the floor surface of the dwelling.

A kitchen is defined as a room with a surface area of at least 4 m2 or 2 m wide, intended and equipped for preparing main meals. If a dwelling consists of only one room in which also meals are prepared, or the meals are prepared in an auxiliary space (hall, bathroom etc.), this dwelling is considered to be without a kitchen.

A dwelling is considered to have a bathroom if there is a room equipped with a bathtub or shower, with a proper water supply and sewer system.

A dwelling is considered to have a toilet if such a sanitary appliance is located at a separate room inside the dwelling or in the bathroom.

A dwelling is considered not to have a toilet or a bathroom if these spaces are located outside the dwelling, in the same building or in a yard.

A dwelling is considered to have water supply, sewer, electricity and gas if at least one room is equipped with proper installations, irrespective of whether they are connected to the community network or to certain households devices or facilities.

Dwellings with air conditioning are those with the air conditioning available in the dwelling unit, whether as an independent appliance installed in the dwelling or as a central air conditioning system in the entire building.

A dwelling is located at an "exclusively or prevalently residential building" if 50% or more of the total utilisable surface area of the building is intended for residence.

A dwelling is located in a "prevalently non-residential building" if 50% or more of the usable surface area of the building is used for non-residential purposes (e.g. shops, catering establishments, banks, post offices, cinemas, private practices, branch offices of companies etc.).

Dwelling is situated in “students' or retirement homes, convents etc." if such buildings have a separate suite of rooms falling under the definition of a dwelling, with a private household residing there that does not belong to that institutional household, that is, it does not use the services provided by the institutional dwelling.

The year of construction of a dwelling indicates the year of the construction of the building in which the dwelling is located. As for a completed dwelling located in an uncompleted building, the year of the completion of the dwelling was entered, while for a dwelling that was rebuilt as a new housing entirety or that was entirely built by changing of the non-residential space into a residential one, the year of rebuilding or changing was entered. For buildings that had been mostly or completely demolished (eg., in the war, earthquakes, land-slides or fire), the year of reconstruction and renovation was taken into account instead of the year of the initial construction. If it was impossible to determine the exact year of construction (eg., for old buildings, unoccupied dwellings or dwellings (houses) not occupied by initial owners), the approximate year of construction was determined. If even that was not possible, the information was not entered, that is, it was entered as “unknown”.