URBAN AUDIT METHODOLOGY
European cities face a variety of challenges, ranging from population ageing, through migration and urban sprawl, to counteracting climate change. By contrast, Europe's dynamic cities attract investment, people and services, thereby stimulating creativity and innovation. Cities are seen as both the source and solution of economic, environmental and social challenges. Therefore, cities are central to achieve the Europe 2020 targets and these are: smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.
Statistics on urban and rural areas measure economic, social and environmental issues and provide information for a range of different analyses, for example, to study which areas have: the highest risk of unemployment; the highest proportion of their respective populations aged 65 and above; or the highest concentration of employment within a particular activity.
Areas and regions can be categorised according to the degree of urbanisation. Based on population size and density, they indicate if an area or region is a:
• rural area or region (thinly populated);
• town or suburb / intermediate region (intermediate density);
• city or urban region (densely populated).
Different data from various administrative and statistical sources were used. In most cases, it was necessary to select a data source that would be most acceptable for subnational statistics. It was CBS data that were mostly used.
Data sources were the following:
· Data collected by National Statistical Office
· Data collected by city
· Data collected by others (state and private organisations).
Selected cities were Zagreb, Rijeka, Slavonski Brod, Osijek and Split. Zagreb, the capital city, has a population of more than 250 000 inhabitants, while population of other cities ranges between 50 000 and 250 000 inhabitants. All cities together cover approximately 25% of the national population.
In order to determine the state of data for 2013 and 2014, it was necessary to estimate data coming from a census. It should be noted that the territorial system of the Republic of Croatia (counties, cities and municipalities as well as spatial units within cities) has remained unchanged since 2001 Census. Therefore, the estimation could be done as follows:
The population data for 2001 and 2011 were compared for all units of territorial system in order to determine the linear trend and the factor of the monthly increase or decrease. The data on 1 January 2013 and 1 January 2014 were obtained by extrapolating 2011 Census data in a way that 2011 Census data were multiplied by a factor of the monthly increase or decrease for 21 months (in order to provide the state on 1 January 2013) or 33 months (to provide data on the date 1 January 2014). During this process, the structure that existed in the 2011 Census was used, actually the distribution of data on sex, age and other ranges, because it is assumed that nothing can significantly change in one or two years.
Various additional estimating methods were used as well. For example, if the length of bicycle network in one city became longer, it is assumed that percentage of commuting by bicycle is also higher. Some data have been estimated according to information from agencies for selling real estates (such as average price for a dwelling, average price for a house and average annual rent for housing per m2).
There were some deviations from the real definition. For example, we included municipality of Okrug in Split LUZ even if it shares no common land border with other components of the larger urban zone. Still, since the municipality of Okrug is located on an island, it has shares a sea border with other components of the larger urban zone.
Concerning economic activity, work-based definition of job was used and data were collected from the Statistical Business Register instead from the employment and wages statistics and the Labour Force Survey.
Larger urban zones around selected cities have been selected in the following way: it was determined for every city if the commuting rate was over 5% (according to the 2011 Census data) within municipalities and towns at the LAU 2 level and continuous larger urban zones (no holes or gaps) were created. The only exception was the Split larger urban zone, which included the municipality of Okrug even if it shares no common land border with other components of the larger urban zone. Still, since the municipality of Okrug is located on an island, it shares a sea border with other components of the larger urban zone.
Larger urban zones (LUZs) were created by CBS only for the needs of subnational statistics on the basis of the nearest neighbourhood. Such a delimitation of areas is suitable for these needs, since there are more than five hundred small municipalities and towns in the Republic of Croatia, which are quite appropriate elements for the construction of a homogenous larger urban zone.
Number of SCD units ranges between 9 and 22. The number of population for identified units varies between 3 992 and 70 009 inhabitants (per SCD in Zagreb). In three sub-city districts there were more than 5 000 inhabitants according to the 2001 Census, but less than 5 000 inhabitants according to the 2011 Census.
The Croatian data for variables number of dwellings connected to potable drinking water system and number of dwellings connected to sewerage treatment system are in fact data on the state of being connected to potable drinking water system and sewerage treatment system. It is impossible In Croatia to estimate a number of connected households, since more than one of them (in some cases even hundreds of dwellings) use the same connection to the water system. The situation is probably the same in most European countries, which caused the urban audit methodology to be changed and now definitions refer to population connected to potable drinking water system and population connected to sewerage treatment system.
Remark: the project on subnational statistics was carried out in cooperation with the Eurostat.
All data published on CBS web pages have been have been approved by Eurostat and are available on http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/cities/data/database?p_p_id=NavTreeportletprod_WAR_NavTreeportletprod_INSTANCE_KhPDfq283AOB&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_state=normal&p_p_mode=view&p_p_col_id=column-2&p_p_col_count=1