BUREAU OF STATISTICS
ZAGREB, 28 JANUARY, 2010
OBLIGED TO NOTIFY DATA SOURCE
USAGE OF INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) IN
HOUSEHOLDS AND BY INDIVIDUALS, 2009, FIRST RESULTS
- Slight increase in households equipped with the ICT
- Accessibility of broadband Internet access is rising, a significant increase in usage of broadband Internet is noticed
- Computer and Internet usage is satisfying only with younger population up to age 24, an increase among elder population is noticed
- Low level of using on-line services such as e-banking and e-government, although minor increase is present
- Underdeveloped commerce via the Internet; only 10% of individuals purchased goods or services via the Internet during last year (an increase of 3% as compared to 2008)
- Large portion of the Internet usage relates to leisure and educational activities, growth is expected in this segment with further development of the ICT infrastructure
The Survey results showed that households in the Republic of Croatia were still relatively poorly equipped with the ICT. An increase of 2% was spotted in having personal computer. Also, there was a 5% increase in having Internet access, as compared to the previous year.
As compared to the last year, a significant increase of 26% was spotted in broadband access to the Internet. At the same time, there was a significant decrease in the number of households using a dial-up access, from 37% to 12%. The share of households using the mobile or cable Internet was the same as in the previous year.
The Survey showed that expensive service cost and non-availability of access were important reasons for not having the broadband Internet access. As compared to the previous year, a significant decrease was noted in the number of households with no need for the Internet access, from 40% to 25%.
There were no noticeable changes in the age structure of computer users as compared to the last year. The youngest population still maintained lead in the computer usage and the number of users decreased proportionally with age. A similar trend was noticed in the employment status structure, where pupils and students, as the youngest group, were the most frequent computer users. A significant increase was noticed among pensioners in the eldest age group, where the number of computer users doubled.
As shown in the previous chapter, there was a noticeable increase in Internet users among pensioners in the eldest age group. The number of the Internet users in that particular group doubled. As for other age groups, there was a minor increase in the Internet users.
If the results were compared with the last year data, it can be seen that individuals mostly used the Internet for obtaining information on goods and services (70%), for sending electronic mail (77%) and for reading daily news and magazines (an increase of 10%). There was a considerable increase in the Internet usage for educational purposes and for seeking of health-related information (an increase of 8%). A relatively low share of the usage of e-banking and e-government services shows that the usage of on-line services was still not widespread, although there was a minor increase in both categories.
The Survey results showed that commerce via the Internet was not represented as much as it should had been; only 10% of individuals purchased goods and services via the Internet, but there was an increase of 3% though. Buyers' habits were very similar to those recorded in the previous year: books, magazines and educational material, together with clothes and sports equipment were still favoured.
Replies from respondents indicate that they valued most the personal security and quality of service offered by a vendor, along with a guarantee of legal safety. Another major reason for the Internet shopping was a wider offer of products and services.
A conclusion which can be drawn from the presented data is that the vast majority of population is still not familiar with the Internet shopping and they still prefer traditional shopping.
Purpose of the statistical survey
Data shown in this publication are estimates obtained through the IKT-POD Survey. This is an annual survey on the usage of information and communication technologies (ICT) and provides information on the usage of computers, the Internet, electronic commerce and other ICTs in enterprises. The data are an important source for conducting policies in the field of information society in the Republic of Croatia andin the European Union.
The IKT-POD Survey was conducted, according to Eurostat guidelines, in 2009 on the legal basis of the Official Statistics Act (NN, Nos. 103/03 and 75/09). It was conducted by the GfK d.o.o. agency on behalf of the Central Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Croatia. Harmonised surveys were conducted in all EU Member States, and therefore the data are internationally comparable. The international data are available on the web site address: http://epp.eurostat.cec.eu.int, Themes Science and Technology Data. Concepts and definitions used in the IKT-POD Survey are in line with the EU Methodology for Statistics on the Information Society, 2008.
The observation units are persons aged 16 to 74 and their households.
Selected persons answer the questionnaire. In case of their absence, another household member can answer instead, but on behalf of the selected person.
The sample size was 6 000 persons who were at the time of data collection (in the period from15 August to 10 September 2009) aged 16 to 74.
The basis for the sampling frame are the 2001 Census of Population of the Republic of Croatia and phone directories of phone companies.
Methods of data collection
The data were collected in the field by using printed questionnaires and computer assisted telephone interviewing. The reference period was the first quarter of 2009.
Out of the total sample size (6 000 units), there were 5 580 eligible units and 2 084 persons took part in the Survey. It means that the response rate was 37% and the eligibility rate was 37.3%. The non-response rate was 63% and the refusal rate was 37.2%.
Weighting helps in the calculation of an unbiased estimate and in achieving of the representativeness of the sample for the whole population. The Survey data refer to persons and households and therefore two weights were calculated:
- The weight for individuals and
- The household weight.
The RIM weighting procedure (iterative proportional fitting – IPF) was used for the grossing-up of individuals. Variables used for the grossing-up were the following: county, settlement size, sex, age and education level.
The Rim-weighting procedure was used for the grossing-up of households as well. The extrapolation weight was calculated for each household that participated in the Survey and the calculation method included a county, settlement size and the number of household members.
We extended the calculated weights for persons to the whole population of the persons aged 16 to 74. On 31 December 2008, there were 3 426 813 people aged 16 to 74 in the Republic of Croatia.
The calculated household weights is extended to the whole population of the households, that is, households with at least one person aged 16 to 74. On 31 December 2008, there were 1 451 730 households with at least one person aged 16 to 74.
Definitions and explanations
Blog is an Internet diary. The expression originates from the English language: WEB + LOG = WEBLOG, BLOG. Blog is a diary written on the Internet.
Wireless connection is a connection with the Internet without wire by using a radio-frequency, infrared, satellite or microwave connection, wimax, etc. One of the most frequent uses of wireless connection is via a mobile phone.
Palmtop or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) is a computer with a screen, usually in colour, sensitive to touch. Touch sensitive screen or a virtual type device on a screen serves for data entering. It uses a memory card for storing data and has at least one type of connectivity: infrared, Bluetooth or WiFi. A handheld computer is less efficient as a personal computer in the same price class, but can be used as a mobile phone (smart phone), e-mail client, the Internet browser or as a media player.
Digital television enables transmission of the television and radio programs in a digital format. The transmission enables high quality signals and the television viewer can enjoy the quality of the picture as it can be seen in a television studio.
xDSL is a broadband technology designed to increase a frequency area and enable the transmission of data available via standard copper telephone wires. It includes ADSL, SDSL, HDSL, RADSL, VDSL, DSL-Lite, etc. A DSL line can carry both data and voice signals and the data part of the line is continuously connected. An ADSL is one of the xDSL technologies, which enables asymmetrical transmission of data, meaning that the speed of downloading is much faster than the speed of uploading.
Broadband are technologies or connections that enable rapid transmission of data, respectively films, games, video-conferences over the Internet network (e.g. ADSL, cable connection, UMTS, optical connection, VDSL, leased lines).
Internet café is a public place that offers access to the Internet. It is one of the public Internet points.
E-commerce means buying or ordering of goods and services over the Internet. Typed e-mails are not considered e-commerce.
E-learning means education via the Internet.
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is known as 2.5 G technology, which makes it possible to send/receive blocks of data from/to mobile phone. GPRS provides an “always-on” connection to the Internet and users are charged according to the volume of data transmitted rather than the time spent connected.
ICT (Information and Communication Technology) are software and hardware used for data communication (e.g. computer, fax, the Internet, fixed, mobile phone).
Internet is a worldwide network of computers, communicating on the basis of standard Internet protocols and providing users with the exchange of textual and audio-visual information.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a digital network that enables transmission of voice, picture and data at the same time (128 Kb/s).
Public access point is any information point that enables the Internet access at a public place. Public Internet points are: library, youth centre, school, cyber café, hotel, airport, etc.
P2P (peer to peer) is a network where data and information are distributed between a multiple number of computers and are not limited to one central server. The network is used for sharing of files, movies and music using different programs (eMule, Kazaa, DC++).
Firewall is a combination of software and/or hardware that protects data and computers from harmful and malicious threats from the Internet.
Set-top box or TV communicator is a device that enables a television set to become a user interface to the Internet. The convergence between television and the Internet enables watching numerous domestic and foreign television programs and the Internet usage through the usual television screen.
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is also known as 3G technology that was designed as a successor to GSM. It enables users to transmit images, video, high volume of data through wireless connection and access to the Internet.
Monthly net income per household is calculated from the total monthly net income of the household: wages/salaries, pensions, income from activity, property, farming, unemployment benefits, scholarships, child benefit, etc. Depending on the amount of the household's income, the households are divided into quartiles. Households with the lowest incomes are included in the first quartile and households with the highest incomes are included in the fourth quartile.
Localities are divided by types as follows:
- Densely-populated area; includes local areas, each of which has a density superior to 500 people per square kilometre, where the total population for the set is at least 50 000 people
- Intermediate area; includes local areas, each of which has a density superior to 100 people per square kilometre, with a total population for the set of at least 50 000 people or is adjacent to a densely populated area
- Thinly-populated area; includes local areas belonging neither to a densely-populated nor to an intermediate area
Education is divided as follows:
- Low education; includes persons without schooling or with incomplete basic education and persons with primary education
- Medium education; includes persons with lower or upper secondary vocational education, persons with upper secondary technical education and persons with upper secondary generaleducation
- High education; includes persons with higher vocational education, persons with professionally-oriented higher education, university education and persons with post-graduate education, masters’ and doctoral studies
The results of the survey are published in an official first release entitled Information Society – ICT Usage and E-Commerce in Enterprises. More detailed data will be published on the web portal of the Central Bureau of Statistics: http://www.dzs.hr.
e.g. for example (from Latin: exempli gratia)
EU European Union
Eurostat Statistical Office of the European Communities
km2 square kilometre