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  Agricultural Census 2003

INTRODUCTION, DEFINITIONS, AND EXPLANATIONS AND NOTES PROVIDED WITH THE DATA

 INTRODUCTION

 The Agriculture Census was carried out in the territory of the Republic of Croatia from 1 to 15 June 2003. This was the first independent Agriculture Census in the Republic of Croatia since independence. The last comprehensive and independent Census was conducted in 1960, while the agriculture census in 1969 was conducted by using the sample method. In 1971, 1981, 1991, and 2001 agricultural holdings were included in the population census.

The purpose of the 2003 Agriculture Census was to collect data on the land reserve, the mode of using agricultural land, the area under orchards and vineyards, and the number of fruit trees and grapevines, irrigation, fertilisation, the use of plant protection chemicals, agricultural machines and facilities, livestock, the labour force in agriculture, other gainful activities in agricultural households, the sale of agricultural products, as well as adjustments to organic agricultural production and environmental protection aspects.

The intention was to obtain the most precise data possible on Croatian agriculture and to establish the importance of this activity in the Croatian economy. The obtained data are the indicator through which national and local authorities will be able to define more precisely the problems of agriculture and to plan and pass appropriate decisions, as well as to provide suitable support for its development.

Given that the census questionnaire and the survey methodology are fully consistent with the requirements of the European Union, the data are comparable with the data of all member states of the European Union and EU candidate countries.

The 2003 Agriculture Census was conducted pursuant to the Law on Agriculture Census.  

Census Units 

Census units are households engaging in agricultural production, and business entities and parts of business entities which engage in agricultural production.

The Census includes:  

a) Households with Agricultural Production

A household with agricultural production is any family or other community of persons who live together and spend their income together for meeting the basic life needs, or any person living alone (single-person household), which engages in agricultural production, or has an agricultural holding, which has a single management, and uses jointly the means of production (machines, facilities, and land) and the work of the members of the household, regardless of whether its production is for personal needs alone or for sale.

An agricultural holding is an independent unit which has a single management, uses the means of production (machines, facilities, land, etc.) and produces agricultural products and/or rear cattle, keeps poultry, bees, and rears other animals.

Data on households with agricultural production are collected by using the interview method on census forms filled out by the enumerators. 

b) Business Entities 

Business entities and parts of business entities which engage in agricultural production are legal and physical persons registered to perform agricultural activities, or which engage in agricultural production but are registered in another activity.

Data collected from business entities and parts of business entities which engage in agricultural production are collected by using the reporting (postal) method. 

Critical Moment

The Census was started as of 31 May 2003 at 24:00 hrs, or 1 June 2003 at 00:00 hours, which is considered the critical moment of the Census. 

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS

Household with Agricultural Production

A household with agricultural production is any household engaging in agricultural production, which has a single management, uses jointly the means of production (machines, facilities, and land) and the work of the household members.

If a number of households jointly engage in agricultural production (e.g., a household of parents and a household of a grown-up child), it will be enumerated as one household provided that they have a joint manager and jointly use the labour force and equipment.

Production of Agricultural Products Includes:

  a) Growing of crops

-          cereals,

-          potatoes and leguminous plants for dry grain,

-          oilseeds, tobacco, sugar beet, and fodder crops,

-          vegetables, flowers, and horticultural plants,

-          seeds and seedlings

-          fruit cultivation and vine cultivation

-          mushroom cultivation

b) Rearing cattle, poultry, and other animals 

-          cattle rearing

-          pig rearing

-          sheep and goats rearing

-          horse raising

-          rearing of donkeys, hinnies, and mules

-          poultry breeding

-          breeding of rabbits, bee keeping, and rearing of other animals

Agricultural production does not include:

-          processing of agricultural products

-          forestry (silviculture and exploitation of forests)

-          fishery (fish farming and fishing)

-          providing agricultural services for others with own mechanical equipment  

Total Available Land

Total available land consists of agricultural land and non-agricultural (other) land.

Total available land is the sum of the total utilised agricultural land and total other land. The total available land of a household is the land owned by the members of the household, as well as the land owned by others which is used by the household, whether farmed or not.

Total available land (agricultural + non-agricultural) which the household uses or has available is the land owned plus the land rented in minus the land rented out. 

Utilised agricultural land 

Agricultural land includes: arable land and gardens, kitchen gardens, meadows, pasture, nurseries, orchards, vineyards and land with basket willow (osier).

Utilised agricultural land is the land owned plus the land rented in minus the land rented out.  

The number of parcels of utilised agricultural land

A parcel is any part of land used by a household which is surrounded by other people's land.

 

Arable land and gardens are land which is regularly farmed and cultivated and is under crop rotation.

The following are grown on arable land and in gardens: cereals, potatoes, leguminous plants, oilseeds, tobacco, sugar beet, forage crops, fibrous plants, aromatic and medicinal herbs, vegetables, flowers and horticultural plants, and sowing and seeds and seedlings.

Arable land and garden areas include fallow land.

Cereals 

Included here are areas under cereals for grain production, regardless of whether the yield of the grain is planned for own needs, sale, for feeding cattle, or for seeds.

Also included are areas under soft (ordinary) and hard (durum) wheat, maize, areas intended for grain silage with or without parts of the cob of corn, with a humidity higher than 20%, areas under winter and summer barley and other cereals (oats, rye, triticale, millet, buckwheat, etc.).

Potato 

Included are early and late potatoes in arable land and gardens, regardless of whether they are intended for own consumption, sale, or cattle feed.

                                                                                                                        

Leguminous vegetables for dry grain

Included are crops intended primarily for the production of dry grain, whether for consumption or for use as cattle feed. Crops for seed production are also included. 

Oilseeds

Included are crops which are primarily grown for their oil content and which are harvested as dry grain: soy, sunflower and oil rape, as well as other oilseed (poppy seeds, mustard seed, sesame, castor-oil plant, etc.).

 

Forage crops

Included are areas under forage crops grown in a crop rotation system which occupy the same soil for less than 5 years (annual or perennial fodder crop), regardless of whether they are used as hay, silage, or are used fresh.

Also included is animal beet, alfalfa, clover, and mixtures, silage corn (green mass), mixtures of leguminous plants with herbs and other fodder crops not mentioned elsewhere. 

Fibrous Plants

Crops which are grown primarily because of their high content of fibres and which are intended for industrial processing only. These include flax, hemp, etc.

Cosmetical and Pharmaceutical Plants (Aromatic and Medicinal Plants)

Included are crops used in the cosmetics industry and pharmaceutical plants, such as chamomile, basil, lavender, mint, garden-sage, etc.

Other plants (hop, chicory, etc.)

Included here are other industrial plants not mentioned earlier, such as hop, chicory, etc.

Flowers and Horticultural Plants, Seeds and Seedlings

Areas under which flowers, horticultural plants, seeds, and seedlings for selling are produced. This includes the seed of fodder crops, vegetables, aromatic, medicinal, and other plants. Other grown seed is included under the surface of the crop it refers to, regardless of whether it is grown for consumption or for sale.

Other Vegetables in Kitchen Gardens

These are areas separated from the rest of the other agricultural land.  As a rule, they are around the house and are recognisable as kitchen gardens. 

Kitchen gardens are areas envisaged for growing crops (mostly vegetables) which are intended for consumption by persons living in the household and which are mainly not intended for sale. Only occasionally is any surplus of the products grown on these areas sold outside the households.

Meadows  

Land which is used permanently (five years or more) for growing fodder and which is not included in crop rotation.  A meadow may be sown or natural (growing wild).

Pastures  

Land used for cattle grazing. All pastures are included: intensive (lowland) and extensive (hilly-mountainous).

Nurseries and Basket Willow, etc.

Nurseries are areas of land where young woody plants are grown which are intended for later planting in an open area, including: fruit seedlings, vine seedlings, seedlings of forest trees, and ornamental trees and bushes.

Included are areas under basket willow, as well as other perennial crops intended primarily for wickerwork.

Other Land

Other land includes:

Unutilised Agricultural Land - i.e., agricultural land which is no longer farmed for economic, social, and other reasons, and is no longer used in crop rotation.

Wooded Area - these are areas under trees and bushes, including plantations of poplar trees inside and outside the forest, as well as nurseries of forest trees growing inside the forest for own needs. Areas under windbreaks are also considered forest land. Areas intended for growing Christmas trees are also included.

Other Infertile Land - infertile land comprises areas on which no agricultural production is performed, such as: areas under buildings (houses, cowsheds and stables, and other farm facilities), yards, roads, quarries, sandy terrain, bare land without vegetation, karst, fishponds, moors, and areas under channels and other water areas.

Mixed, Combined and Successive Crops - on Arable Land

Mixed and combined occur simultaneously on the same area together with the main crop, whereas the successive crop occupies the soil after the main crop is harvested.

Irrigated Areas  

Irrigated areas represent an actually irrigated area at least once in the observed period. If the area is irrigated a number of times during the observed year, it is reported only once. 

Irrigation Water Sources

Ground Water 

Water sources, located on the holding or near the holding; used irrigation water comes from bored or dug water wells or from free flowing subsurface water sources or similar sources.

On Farm Surface Water

Included is irrigation in cases of using water from small natural lakes or artificial dams located entirely on the holding.

These can also be tanks to collect rainwater or ground water. If ground water is collected on the dam only during the irrigation period, it is reported as ground water.

Off Farm Surface Water

Included are surface running waters (lakes, rivers, other water flows) which were not created in an artificial way for irrigation purposes.

Water from the Water Supply Network

Irrigation water comes from a common water supply network (waterworks) and is usually charged for.

The water supply may be public or private. Also included in this category are cases where tanks are filled with water from the mains and which are transported to the field for irrigation.

Pesticides

Included is the total area which is treated with pesticides in the observed period, or on which any pesticide is used at least once.

Areas Treated with Fertilisers

Included are areas which were treated with mineral and/or organic fertilisers, or on which any fertiliser was used at least once.

Areas treated with lime for soil calcification are not included.

If an area was treated a number of times in the observed period, it is included only once.

Organic Fertilisers include fertilisers of animal origin, solid and liquid; with litter or without litter (solid dung,liquid manure, slurry).

Preparation for Organic Agriculture

Organic agricultural production must be performed according to special legal regulations, so that parcels of agricultural land, production and warehousing locations are clearly separated from any unit which does not produce according to organic agricultural production rules.

Data refer to the households in the adjustment process, i.e., in the transition period for organic agricultural production in plant or livestock production, and which still do not possess a certificate for the performance of this production.

Orchards 

Orchards are agricultural land under fruit trees. Included are the areas of all orchards, regardless of the level of the cultivation of plantation and the distance between the trees, the use of agricultural machinery and mechanical processing and care. 

Total Number of Trees is the total number all trees, regardless of the age of the trees. Included are productive trees and young trees which still cannot bear fruit in extensive and plantation orchards.

Fruit bearing Trees are trees capable of bearing fruit, regardless of whether they bore fruit in the observed period in extensive and plantation orchards.

Extensive (Traditional) Orchards are country semi-intensive or extensive fruit trees of mostly old sorts. Included are trees in orchards which are mostly mixed, as well as trees in yards, on boundaries, next to roads, etc. 

Plantation Orchards are established with a specified distance between rows of trees; they can be farmed mechanically, and as a rule these are larger plantations of fruit trees and berries, used for the cultivation of fruit, mostly intended for sale. 

Vineyards

Vineyards are planted with vines to produce wine and the table grapes.

The Total Number of Grapevines represents the total number of all grapevines, regardless of how old they are. Productive grapevines and young grapevines which still cannot bear fruit are included.

Productive Grapevines are grapevines which can bear fruit, regardless of whether they bore fruit or not in the observed period.

Wine Sorts are those which are primarily grown for wine production.

Table Sorts are those which are primarily grown for the production of grapes for the table.

Plantation Vineyards

Plantation vineyards are cultivated with a specific distance between grapevines, in which mechanised cultivation can be performed, and as a rule where all measures of modern farming methods are implemented.

Livestock, Poultry, and Other Animals 

All livestock, poultry, and other animals which were on the holding at the time of the Census are included, namely: own livestock and the livestock of other owners.

Pets (dogs, cats, etc.) and other animals (except for horses) which are not used for production, but for the leisure of the owner and his households, are excluded.

 

Cattle

Cattle under 1 Year Old are young male and female cattle (calves, bullocks, and heifers) up to one year old, regardless of the purpose of rearing.

Cattle 1 to 2 Years Old

Female heads which have already calved are not recorded here.

Male heads are recorded regardless of the purpose of rearing (for fattening or breeding).

Cattle 2 or More Years Old

Heifers are female cattle, 2 or more years old, which have not yet calved.

Heifers in Calf are female cattle, 2 or more years old, from which the first offspring is expected.

Cows are female cattle, which have calved at least once.

Dairy Cows are those kept mainly for milk production; cows that are dry at the moment are included here. Dairy cows fattened after the last lactation and which are intended for slaughter are also included here.

Other Cows are those which are reared primarily for breeding and which are not milked. Working cows are also included here. Other cows selected for slaughter (whether or not fattened before slaughter) are included.

Bulls are male breeding heads.

Oxen are male castrated heads, 2 or more years old, used for work.

Pigs

Piglets up to 20 kg Live Weight - are included regardless of gender and purpose of rearing.

Pigs over 20 kg  - grouped according to live weight.

Pigs for Breeding are: gilts, in-pig gilts, hogs, and boars.

Gilts are selected young female heads for breeding, which have not yet farrowed.

In-Pig Gilts are young female heads for breeding expecting their first offspring.

Breeding Sows are female breeding heads which have farrowed at least once. Sifted hogs fattened before slaughter are not included; they are included in fattened pigs and are grouped according to weight.  

Boars are male breeding heads. Sifted hogs fatted before slaughter are included in fattened pigs and are grouped according to weight.

 

Sheep

Lambs and tags are young sheep of both genders under one year old.

Breeding Female Sheep include female heads over one year old which have already lambed and those from whom the first offspring is still expected. Sheep for slaughter which have already lambed are also included.

Other Sheep - include all other heads (rams, sterile sheep, etc.).

Goats

Nanny Goats and Kids under 1 Year Old are young heads of both genders under one year.

Goats for Breeding are young heads which have already kidded and those still expected to have the first offspring. Goats for slaughter which have already kidded are also included.

Other Goats include all other heads (billy goats, sterile female goats).

Horses

All heads regardless of gender, age, and purpose of rearing are included: foals, fillies, mares, and in-foal fillies, stallions, and geldings.

Mares are female heads which have already foaled. This category includes in-foal fillies, from whom the first foal is expected.

Donkeys, Hinnies, and Mules

All categories are included, regardless of their gender, age, and purpose of rearing: donkeys, hinnies, and mules.

POULTRY

The number of poultry (over 30 days old) regardless of kind, gender, and purpose of rearing is included: fattened chicken (broilers), egg-laying hens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other poultry (guinea hen, quail, pheasants, ostrich, etc.).

OTHER ANIMALS

Rabbits:  the total number of rabbits is included, regardless of gender, age, and purpose of breeding.

Colonies of Bees (beehives) - these are colonies of bees kept for the production of honey.

Every swarm is recorded as one beehive, regardless of the type of beehive.

Agricultural Machines and Equipment  

Machines and equipment used in the household in the observed period are included, more specifically, those owned by the households as of 1 June 2003; and other people's machines and equipment used in the period 1 June 2002 - 31 May 2003.

Agricultural machines in working order are included, as well as those that can become operational with minor repairs, and also those delivered to workshops for repair.

Cultivators

Cultivators include motor-cultivators of all types, makes of production and power, regardless of which tools may be connected (milling machine, mower, sprayer, or another tool), mostly used in gardening, viticulture, flower cultivation, etc.

Four Wheel Tractors

Not included are tractors which are used exclusively in forestry, fishery, digging ditches and roads, and similar activities.

Combines Harvesters

Combines harvesters are self-propelled or hooked-up machines, used for harvesting cereals, leguminous plants, oil plants, seeds of clover, grass, etc. Combines for picking string beans and peas are not included.

Fully Mechanised Harvesters for Potatoes and Sugar-beet

Lines for potatoes and sugar-beet are included.

Fully Mechanised Harvesters for Potatoes

These are complete lines of machines which allow for potato tubers to be lifted in one go or in two or three passes, and then deposited behind or beside the potato lifter in a continuous line and loaded onto a vehicle for transport (lorry, trailer).

Fully Mechanised Harvesters for Sugar-beet

These are complete machine lines allowing for the heads of sugar-beet sown in one or more lines to be cut off in one go (during the same pass) or in two or three passes, and then deposited laterally in a continuous line. They also allow for the sugar-beet root to be lifted and deposited behind or beside the lifter in a continuous line and loaded onto a vehicle for transport (lorry or trailer).

Fully Mechanised Harvesters for Forage Crops

These are complete lines of machines which allow, in one or a number of passes, fodder crops to be cut, collected, and loaded onto the means of transport (lorry, trailer), or fodder crops to be cut, baled and if required loaded and transported for storage.

Other Mechanised Harvesters (for Maize etc.)

 

All self-propelled and attachable harvesting machines, as well as, for example, maize harvesters, forage harvesters, machines for harvesting vegetables, and for picking fruit, olives, and grapes, and other harvesting machines.

Tractor Trailers

Include all owned tractor trailers of all types (for transportation, self-loading trailers, and manure spreaders), regardless of carriage weight and mode of unloading (with or without unloading equipment). This includes the so-called "rubbermaid cart" (specially modified wood-metal construction on two axles which can be attached to the draw bar of the tractor), etc.

Irrigation Equipment

All equipment is included, whether or not it is currently used.

Irrigation equipment consists of the following components: power generator set, and main and distribution pipelines.  

Specialised irrigation equipment used in kitchen gardens, glasshouses, or plastic tunnels are not included.  Facilities used for the irrigation of vegetables on arable land are included.

Milking Equipment:

Owned equipment is included, regardless of whether it is mobile or fixed.

Barrels and Tanks (for Wine, etc.)

Barrels and tanks used for storing wine, olive oil, brandy, and other agricultural products are included (e.g., for pickled cabbage, etc.), regardless of whether they have a lid or not. Water tanks and tanks for liquid manure are not included.

Agriculture Facilities 

Included are all capacities, of all owned and rented agricultural facilities used by the household for the accommodation of livestock, agricultural machines, and products. Facilities with foundations, three independent walls, and a separate entrance are considered agricultural facilities, regardless of the size and type of material they are built of.

Stables for Bovine Animals

Facilities used for the accommodation of heavy livestock are included (cattle, horses, hinnies, mules, and donkeys).

Facilities for Pigs

Facilities for the accommodation of pigs; farrowing pens, facilities for pig fattening, etc., are included.

Facilities for Sheep and Goats

Facilities intended for the accommodation of sheep and goats are included.

Poultry-houses

Poultry-houses for the accommodation of all kinds of poultry, chicks, and adult poultry are included (chickens for fattening, egg-laying hens, etc.).

Multipurpose Facilities for Keeping Livestock

Facilities for keeping a number of different types of livestock and poultry are included.

Facilities for Agricultural Machines

All facilities for the storage and repair of agricultural machines and equipment are included.

Silos

All silos on the holding which are used for keeping agricultural products are included (e.g. silage, fodder crops, etc.).

Facilities for the Storage of Agricultural Products:

All facilities for storing agricultural products, such as granaries, storehouses, hay storage facilities, etc., are included.  Facilities for storing ears of corn are included (cornhouses). 

Facilities for Mushroom Growing:

Included are facilities specifically built or adapted for mushroom cultivation, such as underground rooms, cellars, etc. Actually used areas which were used at least once in the observed period are included. If the same area was used more than once, it is reported only once.

Facilities for Organic Fertilisers 

Included are areas of all functional facilities with an impermeable (concrete) base and sewerage or tank, whether covered or not.

Solid dung is the discharge (excrement) of domestic animals with or without litter, and with a possibly small amount of urine.

Liquid manure is the urine of domestic animals possibly including small quantities of excrement and/or water.

Slurry is a liquid mixture of excrement and urine of domestic animals, possibly including water and small amount of litter.

Seasonal Labour Force includes persons who have worked occasionally on the agricultural holding in the observed period of one year (1 June 2002 - 31 May 2003).

Hiring Workers with Machinery

Included are all kinds of agricultural activities performed on the holding, together with agricultural machines, by persons who work independently or persons engaged through an agent, agricultural cooperative, etc.

Mutual unpaid assistance by neighbours is not included.

Other Gainful Activities 

Included are some other gainful (profitable) activities, which are not part of agricultural activities, but are directly connected to the holding and which yield income.

These are activities in which either the resources of the holding are used (land area, facilities, machines, labour force), or products from the holding.

 

NOTES WITH THE DATA

All data are processed according to the seat of the owner/user or manager of the agricultural holding, or seat of the business entity or part of the business entity.

LAND

Tables 2. Surface Area of Utilised Agricultural and Other Land  by categories (1 June 2003.)

Other land (ha) - difference to "total" refers to other unutilised land.

 

Tables 4. Surface Area of Utilised Arable Land and Gardens (1. June 2003.)

In "other vegetables" there is a round-up error due to the conversion of lower units (m2) into hectares and ares.

 

Tables 6. Areas under Mixed, Combined and Successive Crops, Irrigated Areas and Areas Treated with Pesticides and Fertilisers (1. June 2002. - 31. May 2003.)

In "areas treated with pesticides" the difference to the "total" either refers to other plant protection chemicals (fungicides, rodenticides, etc.), or the difference has arisen because the same area was treated with different agents.

 

LIVESTOCK, POULTRY, AND OTHER ANIMALS

Data refer to the total number of livestock, poultry and other animals kept on the holding regardless of ownership.