The Census, which is, according to the international standards, carried out every tenth year, is a process of collecting, processing and disseminating of demographical, economic, educational and social situation data that refer to the total usual resident population of a country at a specific time.
The Census was carried out on the basis of the Law on the Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2001 (Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia, No. 64/2000) and the Act on Amendments to the Law on the Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2001 (Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia, No. 22/2001).
The “Recommendations for the 2000 Censuses of Population and Housing in the ECE Region” jointly prepared by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and the Statistical Office of the European Communities (New York and Geneva, 1998) were relevant for the Census 2001. Their aim is to “facilitate and improve the international comparability of data through the harmonization of data, definitions and classification of topics”.
The Recommendations offer detailed definitions of census units, characteristics and modalities, prescribing them as either obligatory or optional. In line with the Recommendations, the Croatian Bureau of Statistics took over the entire obligatory contents (core topics) as well as over 50% unobligatory or optional contents (non-core topics).
1. Census units
On the basis of article 2 of the Law on Census 2001, the following census units are covered by the Census: residents (persons), households and conventional dwellings as well as other inhabited premises and objects that are not conventional dwellings by definition.
a. residents (persons)
The Census includes persons, that is, citizens of the Republic of Croatia, foreign citizens and persons without citizenship who are usual residents of the Republic of Croatia, irrespective of whether, at the time of the Census, they were present in the Republic of Croatia or were abroad as well as persons who, at the Census moment, were temporarily present in the Republic of Croatia.
The Census included households of persons mentioned in paragraph a), that is, every family or other type of community of persons who live together and spend their income on basic existential needs (housing, food etc.) and persons living alone in the place of the Census and not having a household in other settlements in the Republic of Croatia or abroad (single household).
c. conventional dwellings and other occupied premises and objects that are not conventional dwellings by definition
The Census also included all dwellings on the territory of the Republic of Croatia, irrespective of whether they are used as usual or temporary residences (for holiday or recreation, in the time of seasonal works etc.) or temporarily uninhabited or abandoned.
A conventional dwelling is defined as a room or suite of rooms and its accessories, or without them, in a permanent building or structurally separated part thereof which is designed for habitation and which has a separate access to the street.
The Census also included other premises and objects that are not dwellings by definition, but were used for habitation at the time of the Census.
2. Who and what were excluded from the Census
On the basis of article 3, the Census excluded:
- diplomatic personnel of foreign diplomatic bodies and consulates, representatives of international organizations and bodies, including members of their families, who temporarily reside with them in the Republic of Croatia
- dwellings owned by foreign countries.
The reason for that is the so-called extra-territorial quality of diplomatic bodies as well as the international reciprocity. It is not the matter of residents of the Republic of Croatia and neither are representatives of the Republic of Croatia included in the censuses in foreign countries (enumerators did not enter into the buildings of foreign embassies, residences etc.).
The Census also excluded:
- uninhabited (empty) dwellings that were emptied either in order to demolish them and build new buildings, or they are dilapidated, as well as those that were so damaged (in the war) that they cannot be used for habitation
- dwellings in villages that are either entirely used for the storage of agricultural devices and tools, agricultural products, fuel etc. or for processing of agricultural products and
- dwellings used only for running the catering activities (apartments, villas, bungalows etc.), owned by business entities (legal entities and crafts).
3. The Census moment
During the enumeration the answers referred to the situation on 31 March at 24.00 hours (as defined in article 1 of the Law), that is, at midnight between 31 March and 1 April 2001. This very short point is called the Census moment. Due to changes that effect the census units it is necessary to define this moment.
4. Enumeration period
Article 1 of the Law prescribed that in the Republic of Croatia the Census of Population, Households and Dwellings should be carried out in the period from 1 - 15 April 2001. By this regulation the Law obliged bodies and all participants to carry out the enumeration during that period.
5. Obligations of citizens in the Census
In article 5 the Law obliged all persons that they are “…obliged to give accurate and full answers to all the questions in the Census questionnaires”. Exceptions are questions on national and religious affiliation which citizens were not obliged to answer. The legal regulation on this right was printed on the Personal Questionnaire and the enumerator had to point to that right as well. The enumerator was obliged to record the exact answer as was provided by an interviewed person. If the person did not want to answer any or both of these questions, the enumerator had to put down “The person did not want to answer”.
6. Final Results of the Census 2001
In order to meet the requirements of experts and public, according to article 33 of the Law on Census 2001, on 30th May 2001 the Croatian Bureau of Statistics published the First Results of the Census 2001, that is, data on the number and territorial breakdown of the census units, i.e. some of their contingents, which were obtained as a “”by-product” of enumerators’ work.
These data are presented in the Statistical Report No. 1137.
After the First Results were published, the Croatian Bureau of Statistics prepared the Final Results of the Census 2001, which are also available through this media.
The First Results data on total usual resident population in settlements include persons who were present in the place of the Census as displaced persons, while the Final Results include them in the total usual resident population of their place of usual residence.
6.1. Total number of enumerated persons
Data on the total number of enumerated persons refer to all persons enumerated in the Republic of Croatia (article 2 of the Law) that were either present in their place of usual residence (permanent residents) or were temporarily absent or were enumerated as temporarily present in the place of the Census.
6.2. Total usual resident population
In previous censuses the official results referred to the so-called permanent population, that is, population whose place of usual residence was on the territory of the Republic of Croatia, irrespective of whether persons were present in or, for one reason or another, absent from the place of the Census at the census moment (31st March at midnight).
The place of usual residence, according to the legal definition (Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia, No. 53/91), is “a place where a person settled with the intention of permanently living there…”. This legal definition of the term “place of usual residence” is determined by two facts: residence in a particular place and intention of permanent living there.
In addition to persons according to the above mentioned definition, in the Census 2001 usually resident population were also considered persons who claimed that the place of census was also their place of usual residence, because they have not got a household situated elsewhere either in the Republic of Croatia or abroad, irrespective of whether they were not recorded with the Ministry of Interior as permanent population.
Persons with no permanent address, vagrants etc. are also considered usual residents of the place of the enumeration in the Census 2001.
Nomads were also considered usual residents in places they were caught, that is, where they were at the enumeration time.
Members of institutional (collective) household are also considered usual residents of the place of the Census.
This principle of usual residents was applied in all censuses after the 2nd World War, that is, in the censuses of the following years: 1948, 1953, 1971, 1981 and 1991.
In the Census 2001 a new definition of total usual resident population is applied. The UN Economic Commission for Europe and Eurostat use the term “usual resident population” for “total usual resident population” The criterion used is the so-called “place of usual residence” with the time limit of absence up to 12 months. The Recommendations on Statistics of International Migrations, Revision 1, UN, New York, 1998, determine that a person is considered a long-term international migrant after 12 months, which was applied in the Census 2001.
In addition to the international recommendations concerning censuses and migrations, the definition of the total usual resident population was also based on standards that exist for all economic statistics, given in the SNA (the System of National Accounts) as well as in its European version (ESA-95).
According to the above mentioned international recommendations and the in-house methodological material of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics for the Census 2001, the total usual resident population includes:
1. persons whose place of usual residence is in the Republic of Croatia and who were present at the Census moment (31 March 2001);
2. persons whose place of usual residence is in the Republic of Croatia and who are absent from the Republic of Croatia for less than one year;
3. persons who are temporarily present in the Republic of Croatia for a year or longer;
4. citizens of the Republic of Croatia – employees in diplomatic bodies and members of their families, representatives in international organisations as well as citizens of the Republic of Croatia who are permanently employed in the Republic of Croatia and are sent to work abroad by their employers. They are deemed to be present in the country at the time of the Census, i.e. they are included in the total usual resident population of the Republic of Croatia irrespective how long they may be absent from the country;
5. According to the Recommendations for Censuses, the total usual resident population also includes the following groups of persons;
c) persons living in remote areas
d) military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families, located outside the country
e) merchant seamen and fishermen resident in the country but at sea at the time of the Census (including those who have no place of residence other than their quarters aboard ships)
f) civilian residents temporarily working in another country
g) civilian residents who cross a frontier daily to work in another country
h) refugees (as defined under the Geneva convention) in the country
In addition to the time limit of 12 months for measuring temporary absence or presence and in line with the international recommendations and the stated methodological material, the total usual resident population of the Republic of Croatia also includes persons who maintain a close economic, transport and frequent connections with a household and family in the Republic of Croatia (frequent or rare visits, supporting of family members, constant communication etc.).
Persons temporarily present in the place of the Census (for a year or longer), who come to their place of usual residence less frequently, are included in the total usual resident population.
The total usual resident population of the Republic of Croatia excludes:
1. persons who have been absent from the Republic of Croatia for a year or longer, although their usual place of residence is in the Republic of Croatia;
2. persons temporarily present in the Republic of Croatia for less than a year;
3. in accordance to the Recommendations for Censuses, the following groups of persons, although they are present in the country at the Census moment, are not included into the total usual resident population:
i) foreign military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families, temporarily located in the country
j) civilian aliens temporarily working in the country
k) asylum seekers (based on chapter V – Recommendations on Asylum Statistics, of the Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration)
l) civilian aliens who cross a frontier daily to work in the country
m) civilian aliens temporarily present in the country, e.g. tourists.
In line with international recommendations, all persons for whom the members of their households stated that they are absent from their place of usual residence in the Republic of Croatia and that they temporarily reside abroad as refugees are not included in the total usual resident population of the place of the Census, that is, of the Republic of Croatia.
7. Definitions and explanations connected to presented results of the Census 2001
Although the Census collected data on the date of birth, data on age are presented as a statistic characteristic of population.
In addition to data on particular age, data are also presented according to certain age groups, which most often include a five-year interval. Each group comprises persons that reached age within the borders of an interval. For example, the age group with the interval 10 – 14 comprises children who are aged 10 and over, but have not reached 15 years of age.
Population contingents by age
Among other issues, tables present female fertile (reproductive) population, whose fertile or reproductive period limit, theoretically speaking, ranges between 15 and 49 years inclusively.
Labour force contingent
The term “labour force contingent” refer to the number of persons of particular age, that is, female population aged 15 – 59 inclusively and male population aged 15 – 64 inclusively, which is considered labour force in respect of a theoretical physical ability.
Average living age denotes the mean age value of the total population, or, as tables show, separately for males and females, and refers to the Census moment.
Index of age
The index of age shows the number of population ratio, that is, the share (%) of persons aged 60 and over in the number of population aged 0 – 19 inclusively.
Coefficient of age
Coefficient of age shows the number of population ratio, that is, the share (%) of persons aged 60 and over in the total population.
The marital status is defined as a legal marital status of every single person in regard to the Family Law (Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia, No. 168/98).
An unmarried person is any child or adult person who never legally got married.
A married person is any person who legally got married in a competent institution and in line with valid regulations.
A widowed person is any person whose marriage ceased to exist either because one of the spouses died or because a spouse considered a missing person was declared dead.
A divorced person is any person whose marriage was annulled on the basis of the final verdict.
For persons whose marriage was annulled, the legal marital status before marriage was taken into account.
For persons who lived out of the wedlock the legal marital status of each person was taken into account, irrespective of the community they lived in.
It is considered that children up to 15 years of age did not get married, that is, data refer to unmarried persons.
Number of live-born children
Data on the number of live-born children refer to the total number of live-born children of a woman had, including those children who were not alive any more at the Census moment.
A live-born child is any child who breaths at the moment of birth and exhibits other signs of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movements of voluntary muscles. If a child dies soon after such a birth, it is considered live-born and included into the number of live-born children.
Stillborn children, adopted children or children from the former marriage of the husband are not included in the total number of the live-born children of a monitored woman.
Population by presence/absence and reasons of presence/absence
Usual resident population of the place of the Census, as stated in the definition of the place of usual residence, are persons who reported their place of usual residence – a permanent place of residence in the monitored settlement.
Temporarily present persons are those who were temporarily present in the place of the Census and who are permanent residents of another settlement in the Republic of Croatia or another country, respectively.
During the Census, a person was not regarded as absent from the place of the Census if he or she daily returned to that place. Also, a person who was absent at the Census moment because of his or her job (for example, working in shifts that last for 24 or 48 hours) was not considered absent.
For all persons either absent or temporarily present the reasons of their absence or presence were stated in the Census. For all absent persons reasons of absence were shown separately for Croatia and other countries.
Schooling as a reason of absence referred to every pupil or student who was absent from his or her place of usual residence, and who, at the Census moment, was present in another settlement in Croatia or abroad for the reason of schooling or studying, respectively.
Work as a reason of absence or presence referred to every person who was absent from his or her place of usual residence, and who was present, at the Census moment, in another settlement in the country, either because he or she had (permanent or temporary) employment, or ran a company or craft, catering or other kind of outlet, a solicitor’s office etc. or was engaged in seasonal or another kind of occasional work there.
The answer “displaced person” referred to every person who was absent from his or her place of usual residence, but was present, at the Census moment, in another settlement in the Republic of Croatia. The reason of absence or temporary presence of those persons from the place of usual residence was the exile due to the war situation, that is, such a person has a status of a displaced person.
The first results presented displaced persons as residents of the place of the Census, while final results included them into the total usual resident population of the place of usual residence.
The answer “refugee” as a reason of presence referred to all persons who, due to the war situation, left their places of usual residence outside the Republic of Croatia and were temporarily present at the Census moment in the place of the Census, providing that in the Republic of Croatia they had a status of a refugee.
This answer as a reason of absence referred also to all persons who were absent from their places of usual residence, and who were abroad at the Census moment, that is, who left their places of usual residence in the Republic of Croatia due to the war situation and were present in other countries as refugees. It is also true in the situation when, having the status of a refugee, they got both a residence and a working permit.
The family reason of absence or presence referred to every person who was at the Census moment absent from the place of usual residence and was temporary present in another settlement in the Republic of Croatia. As the reason for their absence they stated, for example, a visit to family members etc.
The reason stated under the issue “Other” (visit, health care, seminars, tourist journeys) referred to every person who was absent from the place of usual residence at the Census moment and was present in another settlement in the Republic of Croatia or abroad and who stated that the reason of their absence was visiting, a working or private trip, military service, health care, specialisation or another kind of professional training, prison sentence, detention or discipline measures, or tourist or another kind of journey.
The reason “employed by a foreign employer or self-employed” referred to every person who was absent from the place of usual residence because at the Census moment he or she was present in another country, that is, who is, or was, employed by a foreign employer or self-employed.
A foreign employer may be a foreign owner or company, as well as state or public institution of a foreign country. A foreign employer may also be a Croatian citizen who is an owner of a company or an outlet registered in another country, in which he or she employs Croatian workers.
Self-employment abroad refers to the work in own company, outlet, office, consulting office etc.
The reason “resides as a family member of a person working abroad” referred to every person who was absent from the place of usual residence because at the Census moment he or she was present in another country, that is, who resided there as a family member of a person employed in another country by a foreign employer or self-employed.
The reason “work for foreign diplomatic bodies and consulates, international organisations and bodies, sent abroad by domestic companies etc.” referred to every person who was absent from the place of usual residence because at the Census moment he or she was present in another country, that is, worked for Croatian diplomatic bodies or consulates, Croatian and mixed companies, branch offices of banks and other financial institutions, insurance and re-insurance agencies etc. This reason also referred to Croatian citizens who work in the Organisation of United Nations and similar international organisations as well as on the basis of international, technical and other co-operation etc.
This answer referred also to every person who was absent from the place of usual residence, because his or her company this person sent this person abroad in order to perform construction or other kinds of work that this company does on the basis of a special contract.
The reason “present as a family member of diplomatic personnel of foreign diplomatic bodies and consulates” referred to every person who was absent from the place of usual residence because at the Census moment he or she was present in another country as a family member of a person working abroad in Croatian diplomatic bodies and consulates.
Place of birth
The Census 2001 collected two data on a place of birth: a place where a person interviewed was born (these data can be found on ID cards) and the place of usual residence of a person’s mother at the time of birth.
Data on the place of birth refer to the place of usual residence of a mother at the time of birth of a person interviewed.
Place of usual residence of a person at the time of the Census 1991 (31st March)
The Census 2001 collected data on the person’s place of usual residence at the time of the Census 1991 (31st March).
For persons whose place of usual residence was in another country at that time, the data on the country in which a person resided at that time was also collected.
For persons who resided at the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia at the time of the Census 1991, names of the former provinces in Serbia (Voivodina, Serbia Proper and Kosovo) and Montenegro were also recorded.
Data on the place of usual residence at the time of the Census 1991 (31st March) refer only to persons born before 31st March 1991.
Place of usual residence on 31st March 2000
According to the Recommendations for the Census, an information on persons’ place of usual residence on 31st March 2000 was also collected.
Data on the place of usual residence of persons on 31st March 2000 refer to all persons except children born after 31st March 2000.
Migration characteristics of population
For all persons who have not continuously resided in the place of usual residence since their birth, that is, those who changed their place of usual residence, the Census 2001 collected data on place, time and reason of immigration.
If a person migrated several times, only the information on the last migration was registered.
Migration is the change of a residence. Therefore, a person “migrated” into the place of the Census only if he or she resided in another settlement in the Republic of Croatia or abroad.
Place a person immigrated from
Data on a place of immigration was recorded as a name of a settlement in the Republic of Croatia or a foreign country a person immigrated from.
For persons who immigrated from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia at the time of the Census 1991, names of the former provinces in Serbia (Voivodina, Serbia Proper and Kosovo) and Montenegro were also recorded.
Time of immigration
Data on the year of immigration was recorded for all persons who immigrated.
For a person who came as a pupil, student, worker etc., first with an intention of a temporary stay, but afterwards stayed there permanently, the year of permanent stay, not that of temporary stay, was recorded, because such person was then considered temporarily present.
Citizenship is defined as a permanent legal relationship of a particular person with the state, which acknowledges a special legal status to that person.
The acquirement of the Croatian citizenship is defined by the Law on the Croatian Citizenship (Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia, No. 28/92).
Although a person can prove his or her citizenship with a valid ID card, certificate of citizenship, passport or military ID card, the enumerator registered this answer on the basis of a statement of a person that provided data, just as it was the case with all other answers.
Persons with dual citizenship, that is, persons that, together with the Croatian citizenship, had the citizenship of another country, provided the answer “Croatian and other”.
Persons with no citizenship provided the answer “stateless”.
Persons that had a citizenship of another country provided the answer “foreign”.
Nationality is a characteristic that denotes a person’s affiliation to a nation or an ethnic group. Nationality is also defined as a feeling of belonging to a society (people) characterised by an ethnical, lingual and probably cultural affinity of its members as well as a consciousness of the integrity of their own community and its special character in relation to other such communities.
The term ethnical entity includes one or more groups of people, a community whose members share a common identity based on the same culture, religion, language, tradition and other elements.
According to Article 15 of the Constitutional Law on Human Rights and Freedoms and on Rights of Ethnic and National Communities or Minorities in the Republic of Croatia (Narodne novine, official gazette of the Republic of Croatia, No. 105/2000), the Republic of Croatia commits itself in Article 6, Item e), to ensure to members of all ethic and national communities and minorities the right to decide which ethic and national community or minority a citizen wants to belong to.
Regarding national affiliation, the enumerator was obliged to record exactly the answer that a person provided on that matter.
On behalf of children up to 15 years of age, the answer was provided by one of the parents, adoptive parent or guardian.
On the basis of the Law on Census of Population, Households and Dwellings, Article 5, Paragraph 2, persons were not obliged to commit themselves about their national affiliation. In that case, the enumerator recorded the answer: “UNCOMMITTED”.
In the case a person committed himself or herself in the sense of regional affiliation (for example, Slavonian, Dalmatian, Istrian etc.), the enumerator was obliged to warn a person that it was not commitment about nationality and that, during data processing, that answer would be presented under the modality “uncommitted”. If a person, in spite of the warning, insisted on such answer, the enumerator was obliged to record it in the Questionnaire.
On the basis of the list of national minorities stated in the regulations of the Constitutional Law on Human Rights and Freedoms and on Rights of Ethnic and National Communities or Minorities in the Republic of Croatia, data on those minorities as well as the information on the number of persons who were uncommitted were presented. The number of persons who committed themselves about their regional affiliation – total number, without stating affiliation to a particular region, was also included in the latter.
The term “mother tongue” includes a language that a person learned in his or her early childhood, that is, a language that a person considers his or her mother tongue in the case that a household spoke more than one language.
On behalf of children up to 15 years of age, the answer was provided by one of the parents, adoptive parent or guardian.
For dumb people, the language that is mostly used in the household was recorded.
Data on mother tongue are presented for languages, except for Croatian, spoken by national minorities mentioned in the regulations of the Constitutional Law on Human Rights and Freedoms and on Rights of Ethnic and National Communities or Minorities in the Republic of Croatia as well as for other languages. Due to the usual commitment about mother tongue in earlier censuses, and because a part of population committed themselves in such a way, separately were presented data on Croatian-Serbian and Serbian-Croatian language as a mother tongue, respectively.
Religion is a characteristic that denotes affiliation of an individual to a certain religious system, irrespective of the fact whether a person was registered as a representative of a particular religion or not. The important fact was whether a person considers himself or herself as a representative of that religion or not, irrespective of whether a person practices his or her religion or not.
The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, Article 40, guarantees the freedom of consciousness and denomination as well as the freedom to public declaring of religion or other beliefs in the Republic of Croatia.
The enumerator was obliged to record the exact answer about religion as was provided by an interviewed person.
Therefore, if an interviewed person committed him or her as such, the enumerator was obliged to record the answer “atheist” as well.
On behalf of children up to 15 years of age, the answer to that matter was provided by one of the parents, adoptive parent or guardian.
On the basis of the Law on Census of Population, Households and Dwellings, Article 5, Paragraph 2, persons were not obliged to commit themselves about their religious affiliation. In that case, the enumerator recorded the answer “uncommitted”.
Highest level of completed education
The term “the highest level of completed education” includes the type of school that a person completed and thus achieved the highest level of education.
Courses organised in public universities, various agencies etc., that are not included in the educational system of the Republic of Croatia (various courses) were not taken into account as answers to this question in the Questionnaire. The answer recorded referred to a previously completed school included in the educational system.
Completing of one or more grades of high-level schools that was not completed was not taken into account. The exception were persons who did not completed the basic schooling. The answers for them were classified by groups of completed grades.
For children that attended the basic school at the time of the Census, data on previously completed grades were recorded.
Presenting of data on the highest level of completed education is a standard for population aged 15 and over, that is, for persons that crossed the age limit of compulsory education. Nevertheless, due to the international exchange of data, in certain tables there were data presented for total population, irrespective of age, so it should be taken into account in using and analysing of data and in explanations concerning the highest level of completed education.
Data in the group “no schooling” refer to persons that did not attend school, to pre-school children and to pupils in the first grade of the basic school.
Data in the group “1 – 3 grades of basic school” refer to all persons who completed one of those grades as well as to pupils in the second, third and fourth grade of the basic school.
Data in the group “4 – 7 grades of basic school” refer to all persons who completed one of those grades as well as to pupils in the fifth – eighth grades of the basic school.
Data in the group “basic school” refer to all persons who completed the basic (eight-grade) school, then persons who completed the previously called eight-grade or seven-grade school, lower grammar school, that is, lower grades of grammar school, civil school and other schools at the level of a “junior-level secondary school certificate”.
“Secondary schools” are divided into three basic groups:
Data in the group “vocational schools lasting 1 – 3 years and for skilled and high skilled workers” refer to all persons who completed school of commerce, schools providing practical training, schools of industry or crafts, school for high skilled workers, secondary vocational education lasting less than 4 years, apprentice school etc.
Data in the group “vocational schools lasting four or more years” refer to all persons who completed a secondary technical or similar school (for example, economic, medicine, art school etc.) as well as the former so-called secondary vocational education lasting four or more years.
Data in the group “grammar school” refer to all persons who gained a senior-level secondary school certificate in a school of any kind of vocation, including religious ones.
Data in the group “non-university colleges, polytechnics and professional study at schools of higher learning” refer to all persons who completed a professional study lasting 2 – 4 years, or former lever of education that lasted 2 – 3 years, a non-university college, school of higher learning (after 1991), polytechnics or faculty (in the past, this also included teacher training and art academies).
Data in the group “faculties, art academies and university studies” refer to all persons who completed a university or art study at a faculty, art academy or schools of higher learning (before 1990) lasting 4 or more years.
Data in the group “master’s degree” refer to all persons who completed post-graduate study and acquired a title “master”.
Data in the group “doctorate” refer to all persons who earned a doctorate and acquired a title “doctor of science”.
For persons who completed any kind of school abroad, the answer recorded in the Questionnaire included the same school level in Croatia and data on such persons were classified into the adequate school group.
Data for persons who completed the former so-called secondary vocational education are not separately presented by a level of the school completed, but were classified into the groups of secondary schools, depending on the number of grades depending on the duration of schooling in a particular secondary vocational school. As the Census also collected data on the name of the highest completed school, data on persons who completed the former secondary vocational school were presented, among others, in a table presenting data according to the name of the highest completed school.
A literate person is any person with or without school who is able to read and write a composition concerning everyday life, that is, to read and write a letter, irrespective of a language or scripture he or she reads or writes in.
Data on school attendance refer to all persons who, at the time of the Census, either regularly or part-time, attended school: basic, secondary or tertiary, in the country or abroad.
Data also refer to persons who temporarily interrupted their schooling due to illness, military service, prison sentence etc. As for the level of school, the data refer to a school level that a person attended at the moment of interruption.
Answers of all persons enumerated in the Census are classified into the given modalities that stand for possible statuses of persons according to the activity at the time of the Census or 12 months prior to it at the most.
Modalities comprise three possible statuses of the economic activity: employment, unemployment and inactivity. Among them there are several breakdowns, sub-statuses that enable a more detailed classification of every person according to the economic activity.
Labour force includes persons aged 15 (full) and over.
An economic activity is every activity of persons who contribute, or who are ready to contribute, to the production of goods and services during a particular period in order to earn sources of their livelihood.
Depending on time in which the economic activity is measured, there are prevailing and temporary activities.
Prevailing active population
The prevailing active population included all persons who were able to work whose status, at the time of the Census, according to the activity or during 12 months prior to the Census, was “employed” and “unemployed”.
Temporary active population
Temporary active population, or labour force, included all persons who were able to work and whose status, at the time of the Census, according to the activity during the reference week defined in the Census as a period from 25th to 31st March 2001, was “employed” and “unemployed”.
Employed by the prevailing activity are all persons who, at the time of the Census or 12 months prior to the Census at the most, did a job for payment in cash or kind in order to earn sources of livelihood.
Employed persons are also all persons who were, at the time of the Census, absent from work and who intended to return to work after reasons of their absence seize to exist.
Employed persons according to the temporary activity were those who, during the reference week, did any job for payment in cash or kind.
Employed persons are also those who were, during the reference week (25th to 31st March 2001) temporarily absent from work and who intended to return to work after reasons of their absence seize to exist.
Unemployed persons according to the prevailing activity are all persons who, at the time of the Census or 12 months prior to the Census, had no job and who sought job.
Unemployed persons according to the temporary activity were those who, during the reference week (25th to 31st March 2001), were not engaged in any job for payment in cash or kind, who sought for job for last four weeks prior to the Census and who were ready, in the following two weeks, to accept and start doing any offered job.
Inactive population includes persons up to 15 years of age as well as persons included in labour force that has not the status “employed” or “unemployed”.
Status in employment
The status in employment defines the relation of a person engaged in the economic activity towards his or her employment, that is, whether a person is an employee, an employer, a self-employed person or unpaid family worker.
The occupation of a person is defined as a kind of job, or group of jobs, that an employed person performs. As for unemployed persons, the occupation is a job that a person was previously engaged in, and for persons who were not previously employed, a job for which they were enabled through their schooling.
A supported person is every person who has no sources of livelihood of his or her own, supported by parents, spouse, relatives and other persons who are not relatives or by various state, humanitarian, religious or other institutions.
Data in the group “provider works in the country” refer to persons whose provider was an active person who was engaged in a job on the territory of the Republic of Croatia, which included providers who worked for the Croatian diplomatic bodies and consulates and other representative bodies or similar services abroad, then providers sent to work to another country by Croatian companies that are engaged in construction works there as well as providers who work for the Organisation of United Nations or other international organisations.
Data in the group “provider works abroad” refer to supported persons whose provider was working abroad for a foreign employer or was self-employed abroad.
Persons with personal income
A person with a personal income is every person who has a personal income of any kind, which was not earned through the present job, that is, a person who is not economically active, for example, retired persons of any category, persons who get a social welfare payments as well as persons who earn other payments or income on regular basis, for example, income from renting a house, flat, land or other kind of property, savings etc.
Agricultural population includes all persons whose occupation, according to the National Classification of Occupations, can be found in the group “skilled agricultural and fishery workers” as well as in the group “elementary agricultural, forestry and fishery workers” and all persons they provide for.
Branch of industry
A branch of industry is a characteristic of the economic activity of a business entity (company, trade, private family farm, institution etc.) in which a person performs, or performed, his or her job. The branch of industry is determined on the basis of the kind of goods or services produced by the business entity a person works for.
Main source of livelihood
For every person the Census collected data on main sources of livelihood used for basic needs.
Sources of livelihood are all kinds of revenues that a person earned during 12 months prior to the Population Census.
Revenues include income from regular and occasional work, pensions and benefits of all types, regular and occasional social welfare payments, income form all types of property rights as well as occasional income from natural persons and legal entities in the kind of gifts, presents or any kind of relief in both cash or kind.
Usual working time
The usual working time of an active person was determined according to a weekly working time that is, by its length, typical for a longer period of time, in this case, a year that preceded the Census.
For persons who were absent from work during the whole year that preceded the Census, data on the usual working time refer to the working time they would have if they worked.
Full-time work refers to persons whose typical weekly number of hours amounted 36 and more, including persons who worked shorter than full-time, providing that the duration of their work is equal to full-time work, for example, teachers’ work etc.
Part-time work refer to persons whose typical weekly number of hours was less than 36 hours, irrespective of whether a person worked shorter because his or her own decision or because a person could not find a full-time job.
Shortened working time because of working conditions
Shortened working time because of working conditions refer to persons who performed jobs on which, even with the application of all measures for work protection, it was not possible to protect the worker from harmful effects.
Shortened working time because of sickness or disability
Shortened working time because of sickness or disability refer to persons who worked shorter than full-time because of diminished working abilities caused by a sickness or disability.
Weekly working hours
Data refer to the weekly number of hours for persons who performed a job (occupation).
For persons who did not work in a year that preceded the Census, or who worked only a part of a year, data on the number of usual working hours refer either to the number of working hours that they would work if they worked or to the number of usual weekly working hours in the period they worked in.
Place of work or schooling
Data refer only to persons who, at the time of the Census, worked or attended school.
The place of work is a settlement in which a working place of the interviewed person is situated, that is, a settlement in which a person actually performs his or her occupation, irrespective of where the headquarters of a company, business or other unit belonging to it is situated.
The place of schooling is a settlement in which the school, or a class, a pupil or a student enumerated attends is situated.
For persons sent abroad to work for the Croatian diplomatic bodies or consulates and other representative bodies or to perform construction works based on special contracts, data refer to a foreign country in which those persons worked.
If a person performs a job that is not linked to a specific place (for example, a pilot, conductor, crews on ships and other transport personnel, persons who work on maintaining railways or roads etc.), data on the place of work refer to the place where a main station, port or headquarters of a company a person works for are situated.
For sales agents, door-to-door salesmen etc., if they performed their job in various settlements, places where such persons reside are at the same time their place of work.
Frequency of returning to the place of the Census
Data refer to persons who, at the time of the Census, worked or attended school out of their place of usual residence.
Data refer to persons who returned from their place of work/schooling into the place of the Census on a daily basis or several times a week.
It is also considered that a person returns daily in the case when (because of a very nature of the job) he or she works in shifts lasting 24 or 48 hours (for example, in transport or some other services).
Data refer to persons who returned at least once a week from the place of work/schooling into the place of the Census.
In the Methodology of the Census 2001, disability is defined, in the broadest sense, as a state of a body caused by a sickness, injure or an inborn handicap, the consequence of which is a permanent, partly or complete diminution of a man’s ability to lead a normal social life, which also means to earn for his livelihood. Disability is a diminution or loss of certain abilities caused by permanent changes in health, which cannot be removed in the process of healing or medical rehabilitation.
According to the Methodology of the Census 2001, disability does not include alcoholism, except in the case when a person had a decision on disability pension, irrespective of the fact that the enumerator did not see the document.
Cause of disability
Data refer to a phenomenon that caused disability.
Data in the group “from birth” refer to the person’s disability from birth (blindness, deafness, insufficient mental development, physical handicaps, impairment at birth).
Data in the group “Second World War and its consequences” refer to a person’s disability (including any kind of military or civil persons) due to the wartime activities (not only injuries, but also sicknesses) or after-effects of explosives remained after the war.
Data in the group “War for independence and its consequences” refer to a person’s disability (of both military and civil persons) caused by injuries or sicknesses as after-effects of explosives remained after the war.
Data in the group “work-disabled” refer to a person’s disability for which a disability committee found that it was caused by work (a person must have a Decision of the Board for the Revision of Disablement).
Data in the group “sickness” refer to a person’s disability caused by any kind of sickness.
Data in the group “traffic accident” refer to a person’s disability caused by a traffic accident.
A traffic accident is any accident that includes means intended for or used at that time for transportation of persons or goods from one place to another. Traffic accidents include: accidents of pedestrians, casualties in railway accidents, in means of transportation, in the transportation of motorless vehicles, accidents in water and air transportation.
Data in the group “other” refer to a person’s disability caused by other accidents (at home, while walking, in sports etc.) or as consequences of poisoning. Sicknesses in old age are also included.
Physical mobility of a disabled person
Data refer to the physical mobility, that is, a physical state of a person.
Data in the group “completely mobile” refer to a person who could walk without any aid.
Data in the group “permanently limited mobility by the aid of a walking stick, crutches or walking frame” refer to a person who could permanently walk in limited terms only by using of any of the mentioned aids (including artificial limbs) or with a help of another person.
Data in the group “permanently limited mobility by the aid of a wheelchair” refer to a person with a permanent limited mobility and could move only by the aid of a wheelchair.
Data in the group “permanently immobile” refer to a person who was permanently immobile and could not move even by using aids, that is, he or she laid in bed without any possibility of moving on his or her own.
Returnees from working abroad
Returnees from working abroad are persons who were, in the period preceding the Census, employed by a foreign employer or self-employed in another country, and who terminated or left that job before returning to Croatia, irrespective of reasons (retirement, loss of job abroad, family situation etc.).
The term working abroad means working in countries outside the borders of the former Yugoslavia.
Data do not refer to persons who resided abroad as family members and did not work there.
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES
In line with international recommendations, the Census distinguished between two types of households: private and institutional. The term “household” is usually used for a “private household”.
A household is every family or other type of community of persons who live together and spend their income on basic existential needs (housing, food etc.), irrespective of whether all members reside in a settlement where the household has its place of usual residence or some of them temporarily reside in another settlement in the Republic of Croatia or abroad.
A household is also every person living alone in the place of the Census (one-person household) and not having a household in other settlements in the Republic of Croatia or abroad. That person could live either alone in a dwelling, or as a tenant or in a single-room occupancy etc., irrespective of whether he or she shares the room with another single person or with family members of a landlord, but does not spend his or her income on basic existential needs with them.
A household in the place of the Census also include persons who attend school in the place of the Census and who are living in a marriage or cohabitation (for example, students’ marriage).
A household in the place of the Census also include refugees residing in the place of the Census because of the war situation as well as persons without permanent address, who fount themselves in the place of the Census at he Census moment.
A household may consist of one or more family nuclei and, in addition, it may include members that do not belong to any family nucleus in a household. Also, there are households consisting of none family nuclei.
Private households are divided in the following way:
a. family households – those consisting of one or more family nuclei
b. non-family households, which are subdivided into one-person and multi-person households, consisting of brothers and sisters, grandmother, grandfather and grandchild etc., as well as of unrelated persons who spend their income on basic existential needs together.
Institutional households comprise all persons who are provided for by a certain institution. Institution is, as a rule, a legal entity established with the intention to lengthily provide home and care to certain groups of persons.
By type, institutional households are divided into:
A family nucleus is a community that consists only of a married couple or parents (one or both) and their children who are not married and do not live in a cohabitation and who do not have their own children in the same household.
Regarding the composition of a family nucleus, the following types of them can be defined: a couple without children, a couple with children, mother with children and father with children.
In forming a family nucleus, a statement of living in a community was taken into account, and not a legal marital status.
A marriage is every community for which it has been stated that it was contracted in the presence of competent bodies.
Cohabitation is every community of a man and woman who share the same residence and live in the same household and who stated that they did not contracted a marriage in the presence of a competent body.
The tenure status includes a legal frame of residing in a dwelling on the basis of which the household uses the whole housing unit or its part.
The Census collected the following tenure statuses of households:
Available land comprises own land, leased land or land provided free of charge by other persons, lessened by a surface leased or provided free of charge to other persons. Data on land available refer to the situation as on 31st March 2001.
The total land surface comprises both agricultural and non-agricultural land.
Agricultural land consists of the following categories: arable land, orchards, vineyards, olive groves, nurseries, meadows, pastures, gardens and greenhouses.
Arable land is a land that is regularly cultivated and is under the system of crop rotation. Included are clover fields and alfalfa fields, land under fallow and other multi-year crops (hop-yards, osier groves etc.).
Orchards are lands planted by fruit trees or berry-like fruits (for example currant plants, blackberries etc.), irrespective of whether the plantation is arranged or not of whether agricultural machinery and mechanical care and processing were used or not. Therefore, they are plantation orchards as well as rural semi-intensive or extensive fruit plantation of mostly old sorts.
Vineyards are lands planted by grapevines at regular distance, irrespective of the sort of grapes, arrangement of plantation or whether the plantation concerned is newly planted and is still not fruit-bearing or they are fruit-bearing.
Olive groves are lands planted by olive trees, irrespective of the arrangement of plantation, use of agricultural machinery or mechanical care and processing. These are plantations of olive groves as well as semi-intensive or extensive plantations of mostly old sorts.
Nurseries are lands where fruit and grape seedlings are grown, then seedlings of horticultural plants and bushes and forestry seedlings. Excluded are nurseries on which forestry seedlings are grown if they are situated within forestry areas.
Meadows are lands that are cultivated for at least 5 years, they are overgrown with grass which has been sown or self-grown and which is used for the production of hay or silage.
Pastures are lands used for the pasture of livestock; included are all sorts of pastures: lowland, mountain and highland ones.
Gardens are lands separated from the rest of agricultural land for growing of agricultural products intended for use by persons who live in the household. They are usually not intended for sale.
Greenhouses comprise lands that are situated under glass or other kinds of high coverings (plastic houses).
Non-agricultural land comprises areas under forests, fishponds, reed-patches, and pools as well as areas under buildings, yards, paths and rockeries etc.
The Census also collected data on all households that stated they produced:
Data on the type of agricultural production refer to the period from 1st April 2000 to 31st March 2001. In that period a household could be engaged in several types of agricultural production. Therefore, it will be covered for as many times as many different types of agricultural production it was engaged in.
The Census also collected data for all households that stated they are engaged in the production of livestock (horses, hinnies, mules and donkeys, sheep and goats and pigs), poultry or owned beehives. Those data were collected from the household who was the owner (not where they were fattened). Data were collected according to the situation as on 31st March 2001.
Data represent the total number of livestock by their species, irrespective of gender, age or intended use; young, adult, male and female heads.
DWELLINGS AND HOUSING UNITS
The Census of Population, Households and Dwellings, carried out on 31st March 2001, comprised the following housing units:
A conventional dwelling is defined as a room or suite of rooms and its accessories, or without them, in a permanent building or structurally separated part thereof which is designed for habitation and which has a separate access to the hall, staircase, yard or street.
Other occupied premises and objects that are not conventional dwellings by definition are construction units that are not dwellings in a construction sense, but at the time of the Census they were used as a dwelling to a household. They are, for example, premises in buildings that are not adapted into a dwelling (occupied basement, shed, garage, warehouse or office, hotel or hospital room) as well as mobile and immobile objects, for example, a ship, barge, trailer, wagon, tent, dugout, hut and other improvised objects made of various unprocessed and waste materials (brushwood, sheet metal, planks, paperboard, mud etc.).
Collective living quarters comprises a set of premises that are designed for organised habitation by large groups of persons, that is, in which institutional households are situated (exceptionally that includes private households as well) and/or temporarily present persons. They can be, for example, homes for retired persons, homes for children and youth, institutions for a permanent care of physically and mentally handicapped persons and other illnesses, monasteries, students’ and pupils’ boarding houses, shelters (camps) for refugees, prisons, military institutions etc.
Conventional dwellings were enumerated irrespective of how they were used at the Census moment, that is, whether they were occupied or not, while other occupied premises and objects that are not conventional dwellings by definition and collective living quarters were covered only if they were occupied by persons, that is, institutional or private households and/or temporarily present persons.
For other occupied premises and objects that are not conventional dwellings by definition as well as for collective living quarters data were not collected in detail as for conventional dwellings, but only characteristics that were, according to the international recommendations, necessary for the assessment of quality of living (toilet, bathroom, installation of water supply, sewage and central heating).
As a rule, the Census comprised only completed dwellings. A dwelling is considered completed if all planned construction works were done, so that it is completely in order for habitation. A completed dwelling may be situated in a building that is not completed, that is, in which there are also uncompleted dwellings.
An uncompleted dwelling was enumerated only in the case if a certain household used it for habitation because it does not have another dwelling. Data on uncompleted dwellings were collected for a part of it that was actually used, irrespective of the stage of its completion.
By the manner of usage, the following dwellings were enumerated: dwellings intended for a permanent habitation (occupied and unoccupied), dwellings used only temporarily (for vacation and those used at the season of agricultural works) and dwellings which were not occupied at the time of the Census but that were used for performing a certain activity.
Occupied dwellings were those dwellings that were, at the time of the Census, used for habitation of one or more households or temporarily present persons who resided in the place of the Census for the reasons of work or schooling, as well as dwellings of households the members of which all temporarily reside abroad (for work, schooling or other reasons).
Unoccupied dwellings were enumerated as temporarily unoccupied or as abandoned dwellings.
As temporarily unoccupied dwellings were enumerated new dwellings into which nobody moved yet, then dwellings that were emptied for the reasons of moving or performing of construction works, dwellings temporarily unoccupied because they are intended for sale or rent as well as dwellings the households of which live in another dwelling or at another address in the same or another settlement and which are neither used nor rented.
As abandoned dwellings were enumerated dwellings that were not used for a long period of time because the household of the owner moved out or moved to another place, or occupants died, so owners, that is, inheritors did not use the dwelling even on temporarily basis (e.g., for vacation), neither they rented it.
Such dwellings were enumerated if they were in order in construction sense, even partly, of if they could be prepared for habitation after minor repairs. Dwellings in old and dilapidated buildings (those that started to implode) were not enumerated as well as those situated in houses severely damaged in the war, houses on landslides or damaged in earthquakes that were not renewed, and houses intended to be demolished.
Dwellings for vacation and recreation can be defined as conventional dwellings. They are used temporarily or for several months in a year only for vacation and recreation. This does not include dwellings that are not used by their owners for their needs, but only for renting in a tourist season.
A dwelling for vacation can be situated in a separated house, the so-called cottage, in a (inherited) family house and in multi-dwelling building.
As dwellings in cottages enumerated were dwellings in building that were constructed or bought in order to be used only for vacation and recreation (cottages, villas, summerhouses, mountain and hunting refuges etc.).
As dwellings in family houses were enumerated dwellings previously used for permanent habitation, but were used only for vacation at the time of the Census, because the household of the owner or inheritor moved to another place.
As dwellings in “another type of building” were enumerated dwellings situated in multi-dwelling buildings in which all dwellings are used for vacation, or in which some dwellings are used for vacation and other ones for permanent habitation of a household (throughout the year).
As dwellings used in the season of agricultural works were enumerated dwellings that may be defined as conventional dwellings, but are used only in the season of agricultural works (farm, shepherd’s or vineyard cottage etc.).
As dwellings used only for performing an activity were enumerated dwellings that may be defined as conventional dwellings, but at the time of the Census they were not occupied, but were only used for performing of an activity. These are, for example, dwellings owned by citizens that are intended only for renting to tourists, solicitor’s offices, consultant offices, agencies etc. These dwellings were enumerated only if they were not subjects of such reconstruction works that would prevent them of being used as dwellings without a new reconstruction.
During the enumeration of the characteristics of dwellings, the following definitions were used:
A useful floor area is a floor area measured within the walls of a dwelling.
The total useful floor area is a sum of the surfaces of rooms, kitchen, bathroom, toilet, pantry, hall and other utility rooms in the dwelling, partly including the surface of a built-in balconies (75% of the total surface area), covered terraces (50% of the total surface area), balconies and open terraces (25% of the total surface area). Not included in the surface of the dwelling (for example, in family houses) are cellars and attics in which there are not premises intended for habitation, staircases which lead to the main door of the dwelling, separate premises with central heating installations, depositories, sheds and garages.
A room is a premise intended for habitation which is separated from other premises in the dwelling by permanent walls, which is at least 2 m high, has a direct daily light, and has a floor surface of at least 4 m2 and which is at least 2 m wide, so that a bed for an adult person can be situated into it.
Premises that did not fulfil this condition, as well as the kitchen and other utility rooms, were not added to the number of rooms, but their floor area was added to the floor surface of the dwelling.
A one-room dwelling consist s of one room with a kitchen and other utility rooms or without them.
Two-room, three-room and other multi-room dwellings consist of two or more rooms and utility rooms or without them.
A kitchen is a separate premise in a dwelling intended for preparing meals. If there is also a sitting room besides a kitchen, which is not separated from it by a whole wall, then the floor area of the place where meals are prepared added to the floor area of the kitchen and a part used as a sitting room is added to the number of rooms.
If a dwelling consists of only one room in which meals are prepared as well, or if meals are prepared in one of the utility rooms (hall, bathroom etc.), then it is considered that the dwelling is not provided with a kitchen.
A dwelling is provided with a bathroom if there is a separate premise within the dwelling with a tub or shower as well as with water supply and sewage installations.
A dwelling is provided with a toilet if there is such a sanitary appliance in a separate premise within the dwelling or in a bathroom.
It is considered that a dwelling is not provided with a toilet or a bathroom if these premises are situated outside the dwelling, in the same building or in the yard.
A dwelling is provided with installations of water supply, sewage and electricity if in at least on premises such installations are built in, irrespective of whether they are connected to a public system or to some private appliances or objects.
A dwelling is provided with the central heating if such installations are built into the dwelling (radiators, floor heating etc., including air conditioning for air heating), irrespective of whether an appliance for central heating (boiler) is situated in the dwelling (flat-contained central heating) or it is connected to the installation built in the building or to the community heating centre.
According to ownership, dwellings are considered owned by natural persons if they are a private ownership of citizens or tradesmen, or they are considered owned by legal entities if their owners were the state, town/municipality, trade companies, religious communities and other legal entities.
The year of a construction of a dwelling is a year when the house in which the dwelling is situated was completed. For a completed dwelling in an uncompleted building the year of the completion of the dwelling was recorded. For an added-on dwelling or a dwelling created by conversion of a non-habitation space the year of the construction of the addition or conversion was recorded, and not that of the original construction. For buildings that were completely or heavily demolished in the war (or in earthquakes or landslides), the year of renewal or reconstruction was recorded, and not the year of the original construction. Taking into account that it is hard to define the exact year of construction of old buildings, unoccupied dwellings or dwellings (houses) in which the original owners do not reside any more, it was possible, according to the international recommendations, to define an approximate year of construction, with at least accurate decade of construction. In cases where even that was impossible to define, the information was recorded as “unknown”.